Lowick and Holy Island C. of E. First Schools

English Policy

RATIONALE

The National Curriculum (2014) clearly states that teaching the English language is an essential, if not the most essential role of a First school.

The study of English develops children’s ability to listen, speak, read and write for a wide range of purposes, including the communication of their ideas, views and feelings. Children are enabled to express themselves creatively and imaginatively as they become enthusiastic and critical readers of stories, poetry and drama, as well as of non-fiction and media texts. Children gain an understanding of how language works by looking at its patterns, structures and origins. Children use their knowledge, skills and understanding in speaking and writing across a range of different situations.

‘Teachers should develop pupil’s spoken language, reading, writing and vocabulary as integral aspects of the teaching of every subject. English is both a subject in its own right and the medium for teaching; for pupils, understanding the language provides access to the whole curriculum. Fluency in the English language is an essential foundation for success in all subjects.’

(P10 National Curriculum)

We are an inclusive school; we set high expectations and recognise the importance of accurate and regular assessment in order to support individuals at every part of their learning journey and in whatever circumstances. We use one to one support, small groups and cross-phase work to help with this. We plan teaching opportunities to help those for whom English is an additional language and those with disabilities outlined in the SEN code of practice. We agree with the statement of the National Curriculum, that

‘pupils…who do not learn to speak, read and write fluently and confidently are effectively disenfranchised’

(p13 National Curriculum)

AIMS (These aims are also in conjunction with the new National Curriculum 2014 p.3)

PLANNING & PROGRESSION

Long term overviews can be found online for Key Stages One and Two.

Pupils are taught in year groups and mixed Key Stage Classes and planning shows differentiation by age and ability.

Medium term (half –termly) planning is stored centrally.

Schemes of work for phonics and grammar and spelling are used to ensure developmental learning building on prior knowledge.

Short term planning is flexible allowing for assessment for learning after each session/ group of sessions.

Pupils may be streamed by ability for some sessions/ types of homework/ support.

Pupils entitled to Pupil Premium funding will be given additional English support which is tracked and monitored termly.

Pupils with EAL will be given additional English support which is tracked and monitored termly.

(We aim to incorporate the statutory requirements of the new Curriculum 2014)

Spoken Language:

The National Curriculum states that pupils should be

‘taught to speak clearly and convey ideas confidently in Standard English’

(p10 National Curriculum)

They should:

We encourage our pupils to speak clearly and confidently and articulate their views and opinions. We teach that children need to express themselves orally in an appropriate way, matching their style and response to audience and purpose. Listening and responding to literature, giving and receiving instructions. They develop the skills of participating effectively in group discussions.

Ways in which we support this include:

We further incorporate:

Foundation Stage: Small group work, interventions such as Talk Boost, Letters & Sounds, Role play, stories and songs, listening stations, voice recording, show and tell boxes, iPad, Circle time, puppets, questioning, Tapestry.

Key Stage One: Role play related to texts, performance poetry, talking partners, drama conventions, rhymes and songs, class and whole school plays and assemblies.

Key Stage Two: As above plus, Presentations, group tasks, collaborative learning, tag storytelling.

Reading:

The National Curriculum states that pupils should be taught to read fluently, understand extended prose and be encouraged to read for pleasure. Reading is singled out as of extreme importance since through it

‘pupils have a chance to develop culturally, emotionally, intellectually, socially and spiritually’

Reading allows pupils to ‘acquire knowledge’ and to ‘build on what they already know’

(p13 National Curriculum).

Schools are expected to have library facilities and support and encourage reading at home.  

The 2014 Curriculum divides reading skills into two dimensions:

We recognise that both these elements are essential to success and we support the acquisition of both sets of skills through various methods. We recognise that these areas are clearly linked to the other aspects of English learning: speaking and listening, writing, grammar and vocabulary. We also understand that reading is a developmental process and part of life-long learning and we encourage and praise children at every stage of it.

Our aims and connected provision:

We further incorporate:

The Reading Challenge with inbuilt rewards leading to celebration of success.

Foundation Stage: reading book sessions, guided reading, Letters and Sounds, Jolly phonics, name recognition, cosy corner, electronic books, iPad, role play corner, tape recorder with books, poems and songs.

Key Stage One: guided reading in differentiated groups, individual support, real books and schemes, non-fiction and learning how to use these books, comprehension.

Key Stage Two: Whole class texts including a wide variety of activities to create reading stamina, classic texts across a range of genres, Book club and library.

Writing:

The National Curriculum states that pupils should:

The 2014 Curriculum divides writing skills into two dimensions:

We recognise that both these elements are essential to success and we support the acquisition of both sets of skills through various methods. We recognise that these areas are clearly linked to the other aspects of English learning: speaking and listening, reading, grammar and vocabulary.

Our aims and connected provision:

We further incorporate:

Foundation Stage: name writing skills development, sensory development skills for gross and fine motor development through playdough, theraputty and marbles, brushes, signing in books, variety of writing tools, whiteboards and pens, smart board games, iPad, outdoor learning skills for e.g. chalks, paint, computers.

Key Stage One: range of genres, diaries, exciting text related activities, traditional stories, recounts, information texts, authors, spelling tests, grammar and punctuation, handwriting , iPad.

Key Stage Two: Big writing assessment tasks, descriptive writing through topics, i.e. ‘Bronze Age Adventure’, narrative and descriptive writing, newspaper reports related to topics, ongoing spellings, punctuation and grammar integrated into topics, weekly spellings and intervention.

Vocabulary Development:

The National Curriculum makes clear that learning vocabulary is key to

‘learning and progress across the whole curriculum’

(p11 National Curriculum)

since it allows pupils to access a wider range of words when writing and for them to understand and comprehend texts efficiently.

Vocabulary teaching needs to be:

Our aims and connected provision:

We encourage our pupils to have a wide and growing vocabulary in a number of ways, these include:

ASSESSMENT

(Please see marking/assessment policies)

ENGLISH & INCLUSION

At our school we teach English to all children, whatever their ability and individual needs. English forms part of the school curriculum policy to provide a broad and balanced education to all children. Through our English teaching we provide learning opportunities that enable all pupils to make good progress. We strive hard to meet the needs of those pupils with special educational needs, those with disabilities, those with special gifts and talents, and those learning English as an additional language, and we take all reasonable steps to achieve this. For further details see separate policies: Special Educational Needs.

Date Adopted

Review dates

April 2015

April 2018

April 2019

Policy developed by: C. Vanson (Headteacher) April 2015

Lowick and Holy Island C. of E. First Schools

Calculation Policy

INTRODUCTION

This policy has been written in line with the programmes of study taken from the revised National Curriculum for Mathematics (2014). It has been devised to meet the requirements for teaching and learning of mathematics and is designed to ensure pupils have a consistent and smooth progression of learning in calculations across the whole school. The content is set out in staged blocks under the following headings: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Statements taken directly from the programmes of study are listed at the beginning of each section.

Age and stage expectations - This policy is organised into age stage expectations as set out in the new National Curriculum 2014, however it is vital that pupils are taught according to the stage that they are currently working at, being moved onto the next level as soon as they are ready, or working at a lower stage until they are secure enough to move on. Our school’s mixed age classes supports such teaching.

Providing a context for calculation - It is important that any type of calculation is based within a real life context or problem solving approach, this enables children to understand the purpose of calculation, and to help them to recognise when to use certain operations and methods when faced with problems. In addition to this, where ever possible, links are made with our thematic/cross curricular approach (Mantle of the Expert). Children need to be taught and encouraged to use the following processes in deciding an approach they will take to a calculation to ensure they select the most appropriate method for the numbers involved:

  • Can I do it in my head using a mental strategy?  
  • Could I use some jottings to help me?
  • Should I use a written method to work this out?

AIMS OF THE POLICY

  • To ensure consistency and progression in our approach to calculation
  • To ensure that children develop an efficient, reliable, formal written method of calculation for all operations
  • To ensure that children can use these methods accurately with confidence and understanding    

 

HOW TO USE THIS POLICY

  • Use the policy as the basis of your planning but ensure you use previous or following years’ guidance to allow for personalised learning
  • Always use Assessment for Learning to identify suitable next steps in calculation for groups of children
  • If, at any time, children are making significant errors, return to the previous stage in calculation
  • Cross reference with mental maths for guidance on key facts, key vocabulary and mental methods
  • Always use suitable resources, models and images to support children’s understanding of calculation and place value, as appropriate
  • Encourage children to make sensible choices about the methods they use when solving problems  

 

EYFS

Early Learning in number and calculation follows the ‘Development Matters’ and towards the ‘Early Years Outcomes’ EYFS documents. This calculation policy is designed to build on progressively from the content and methods established in the Early Years Foundation Stage.

Addition – Early Stages (EYFS)

Children will engage in a wide variety of songs and rhymes, games and activities. They will begin to relate addition to combining two groups of objects, first by counting all and then by counting on from the largest number.  

They will find one more than a given number.

In practical activities and through discussion they will begin to use the vocabulary involved in addition.  

‘You have five apples and I have three apples. How many apples altogether?’    

Subtraction – Early Stages (EYFS)

Children will engage in a variety of counting songs and rhymes and practical activities.   In practical activities and through discussion they will begin to use the vocabulary associated with subtraction.

They will find one less than a given number.

They will begin to relate subtraction to ‘taking away’ using objects to count ‘how many are left’ after some have been taken away.  

6 – 2 = 4     ‘Take two apples away. How many are left?’

Children will begin to count back from a given number.  

 

Multiplication – Early Stages (EYFS)

Children will engage in a wide variety of songs and rhymes, games and activities. In practical activities and through discussion they will begin to solve problems involving doubling.   ‘Three apples for you and three apples for me. How many apples altogether?’

 

Division – Early Stages (EYFS)

Children will engage in a wide variety of songs and rhymes, games and activities. In practical activities and through discussion they will begin to solve problems involving halving and sharing.   Share the apples between two people.   ‘Half of the apples for you and half of the apples for me.’

Calculation Guidelines for Early Years Foundation Stage

ADDITION

SUBTRACTION

MULTIPLICATION

DIVISION

Children begin to record in the context of play or practical activities and problems.

Begin to relate addition to combining two groups of objects

already carried out.

Solve simple word problems using their fingers

Can find one more to ten.

Higher Ability/ Gifted and Talented children progress to using a number line. They jump forwards along the number line using finger.

Begin to relate subtraction to ‘taking away’

activities already carried out

are left.

Can find one less to ten.

Higher Ability/ Gifted and Talented Progression:

Counting backwards along a number line using finger.

Real life contexts and use of practical

equipment to count in repeated groups

Also chanting in 2s, 5s and 10s.

Share objects into equal groups

Use related vocabulary

Activities might include:

  • Sharing of milk at break time
  • Sharing sweets on a child’s birthday
  • Sharing activities in the home corner
  • Count in tens/twos
  • Separate a given number of objects into two groups (addition and subtraction objective in reception being preliminary to multiplication and division)

Count in twos, tens

How many times?

How many are left/left over?

Group

Answer

Right, wrong

What could we try next?

How did you work it out?

Share out

Half, halve

 

 

ADDITION

The aim is that children use mental methods when appropriate, but for calculations that they cannot do in their heads they use an efficient written method accurately and with confidence. Children are entitled to be taught, and to acquire, secure mental methods of calculation, and one efficient written method of calculation for addition, which they know they can rely on when mental methods are not appropriate. These notes show the stages in building up to using an efficient written method for addition of whole numbers by the end of Year 4. It is however essential, that appropriate mental strategies are taught alongside the written methods in this calculation policy. Note: Before children move onto the next stage in written calculation it is important that their skills are broadened through their use and application in a range of contexts (including money, time and other measures).    

Addition - Stage One

Key vocabulary: add, more, plus, and, make, altogether, total, equal to, equals, double, most, count on, number line. Key skills for addition at Stage 1:

  • Read and write numbers to 100 in numerals, incl. 1—20 in words
  • Recall bonds to 10 and 20, and addition facts within 20
  • Count to and across 100
  • Count in multiples of 1 2, 5 and 10
  • Solve simple 1-step problems involving addition, using objects, number lines and pictorial representations  

Children should be able to - Add with numbers up to 20. Use number lines and number tracks to add by counting on in ones, to start with largest number and count on. Children should: Have access to a wide range of counting equipment, everyday objects, number tracks and number lines and be shown numbers in different contexts. Read and write the addition (+) and equals (=) signs within number sentences. Interpret addition number sentences and solving mixing box problems using concrete objects and number line addition to solve them: 8 + 4 = ___ __ + __   = 6 This should build on prior learning of adding by combining 2 objects.

To support understanding, pupils may physically make and carry calculation with Cuisenaire Rods, Dienes Base material or arrow cards, then compare their practical version to the written form, to help the understanding of it.

Addition - Stage Two

Key vocabulary: add, more, plus, and, make, altogether, total, equal to, equals, double, most, count on, number line, sum, tens, units, partition, addition, column, tens boundary. Key skills for addition at Stage 2:

  • Add a 2-digit number and units (e.g. 27 + 6)
  • Add a 2-digit number and tens (e.g. 23 + 40)
  • Add pairs of 2-digit numbers (e.g. 35 + 47)
  • Add three single-digit numbers (e.g. 5 + 9 + 7)
  • Show that adding can be done in any order (the commutative law)
  • Recall bonds to 20 and bonds of tens to 100 (30 + 70 etc.)
  • Count in steps of 2, 3 and 5 and count in tens from any number
  • Understand the place value of 2-digit numbers (tens and units)
  • Compare and order numbers to 100 using < > and = signs
  • Read and write numbers to at least 100 in numerals and words
  • Solve problems with addition, using concrete objects, pictorial representations, involving numbers, quantities and measures, and applying mental and written methods

Children should be able to - Add with 2-digit numbers: Developing mental fluency with addition and place value involving 2digit numbers, then establish more formal methods.   As with Stage one - to support understanding, pupils may physically make and carry calculation with Cuisenaire Rods, Dienes Base material or arrow cards, then compare their practical version to the written form, to help the understanding of it.

Addition - Stage Three

Key vocabulary: add, more, plus, and, make, altogether, total, equal to, equals, double, most, count on, number line, sum, tens, units, partition, plus, addition, column, tens boundary, hundreds boundary, increase, vertical, =carry‘, expanded, compact. Key skills for addition at Stage 3:

  • Read and write numbers to 1000 in numerals and words
  • Add 2-digit numbers mentally, incl. those exceeding 100
  • Add a three-digit number and units mentally (175 + 8)
  • Add a three-digit number and tens mentally (249 + 50)
  • Add a three-digit number and hundreds mentally (381 + 400)
  • Estimate answers to calculations, using inverse to check answers
  • Solve problems, including missing number problems, using number facts, place value, and more complex addition
  • Recognise place value of each digit in 3-digit numbers (hundreds, tens, units.)
  • Continue to practise a wide range of mental addition strategies, ie. Number bonds, adding the nearest multiple of 10, 100, 100 and adjusting, using near doubles, partitioning and recombining

Children should be able to - Add numbers with up to 3-digits, use the formal written method with the carry going into the next column. Children need to recognise the value of the hundreds, tens and units without recording the partitioning. Pupils need to be able to add in columns. Introduce the expanded column addition method for children who are struggling with understanding of formal written method.  

 

 

Stage One

 

Stage Two

 

Stage Three

+ = signs and missing numbers

Children need to understand the concept of equality before using the ‘=’ sign. Calculations should be written either side of the equality sign so that the sign is not just interpreted as ‘the answer’.

2 = 1+ 1

2 + 3 = 4 + 1

3 = 3

2 + 2 + 2 = 4 + 2

Missing numbers need to be placed in all possible places.

3 + 4 =                     = 3 + 4

3 +  = 7                   7 =  + 4

 + 4 = 7                   7 = 3 + 

 + Ñ = 7                 7 =  + Ñ

The Number Line

Children use a numbered line to count on in ones. Children use number lines and practical resources to support calculation and teachers demonstrate the use of the number line.

7+ 4

+ = signs and missing numbers

Continue using a range of equations as in Stage 1 but with appropriate, larger numbers.

Extend to

14 + 5 = 10 + 

and

32 +  +  = 100   35 = 1 +  + 5

Partition into tens and ones and recombine

12 + 23 = 10 + 2 + 20 + 3

             = 30 + 5

             = 35

Count on in tens and ones

23 + 12 = 23 + 10 + 2

             = 33 + 2

             = 35

The Empty Number Line:

Partitioning and bridging through 10.

The steps in addition often bridge through a multiple of 10

Children should be able to partition the 7 to relate adding the 2 and then the 5.                                               

8 + 7 = 15             

 

 

Add 9 or 11 by adding 10 and adjusting by 1

Add 9 by adding 10 and adjusting by 1

35 + 9 = 44                                   +10

                        

                                                                     -1    

+ = signs and missing numbers

Continue using a range of equations as in Stage 1 and 2 but with appropriate, larger numbers.

Partition into tens and ones

  • Partition both numbers and recombine.
  • Count on by partitioning the second number only e.g.

36 + 53 = 53 + 30 + 6

            = 83 + 6

             = 89

Add a near multiple of 10 to a two-digit number

Secure mental methods by using a number line to model the method. Continue as in Stage 2 but with appropriate numbers

  1. 35 + 19 is the same as 35 + 20 – 1.

Children need to be secure adding multiples of 10 to any two-digit number including those that are not multiples of 10.

48 + 36 = 84

pencil and paper procedures

83 + 42 = 125

either                                                     or

             83                                 80 + 3

       + _42                             + 40 + 2

               5                               120 + 5 = 125

           120

           125

Addition - Stage Four

Key vocabulary: add, more, plus, and, make, altogether, total, equal to, equals, double, most, count on, number line, sum, tens, units, partition, plus, addition, column, tens’ boundary, hundreds’ boundary, increase, vertical, carry, expanded, compact, thousands, hundreds, digits, inverse. Key skills for addition at Stage 4:

  • Select most appropriate method: mental, jottings or written and explain why
  • Recognise the place value of each digit in a four-digit number
  • Round any number to the nearest 10, 100 or 1000
  • Estimate and use inverse operations to check answers
  • Solve 2-step problems in context, deciding which operations and methods to use and why
  • Find 1000 more or less than a given number
  • Continue to practise a wide range of mental addition strategies, i.e. Number bonds, add the nearest multiple of 10, 100, 1000 and adjust, use near doubles, partitioning and recombining
  • Add numbers with up to 4 digits using the formal written method of column addition
  • Solve 2-step problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why
  • Estimate and use inverse operations to check answers to a calculation

Children should be able to - Add numbers with up to 4 digits. Move from expanded addition to the compact column method, adding units first, and ‘carrying’ numbers onto the top line in the correct column. Also include money and measures in contexts.  

Addition - Stage Five

Key vocabulary: add, more, plus, and, make, altogether, total, equal to, equals, double, most, count on, number line, sum, tens, units, partition, plus, addition, column, tens’ boundary, hundreds’ boundary, increase, carry, expanded, compact, vertical, thousands, hundreds, digits, inverse & decimal places, decimal point, tenths, hundredths, thousandths. Key skills for addition at Stage5:

  • Add numbers mentally with increasingly large numbers, using and practising a range of mental strategies i.e. Add the nearest multiple of 10, 100, 100 and adjust; use near doubles, inverse, partitioning and re-combining; using number bonds
  • Use rounding to check answers and accuracy.
  • Solve multi-step problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why
  • Read, write, order and compare numbers to at least 1 million and determine the value of each digit
  • Round any number up to 1 000 000 to the nearest 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 and 100 000
  • Add numbers with more than 4 digits using formal written method of columnar addition.
  • Year 5 Add numbers with more than 4 digits including money, measures and decimals with different numbers of decimal places  

Children should be able to - understand the place value of tenths and hundredths and use this to align numbers with different decimal places. Add numbers with more than 4 digits including money, measures and decimals with different numbers of decimal places.  

Addition - Stage Six

Key vocabulary: add, more, plus, and, make, altogether, total, equal to, equals, double, most, count on, number line, sum, tens, units, partition, plus, addition, column, tens’ boundary, hundreds’ boundary, increase, carry, expanded, compact, vertical, thousands, hundreds, digits, inverse, decimal places, decimal point, tenths, hundredths, thousandths. Key skills for addition at Stage6:

  • Perform mental calculations, including with mixed operations and large numbers, using and practising a range of mental strategies
  • Solve multi-step problems in context, deciding which operations and methods to use and why
  • Use estimation to check answers to calculations and determine, in the context of a problem, levels of accuracy
  • Read, write, order and compare numbers up to 10 million and determine the value of each digit
  • Round any whole number to a required degree of accuracy
  • Pupils understand how to add mentally with larger numbers and calculations of increasing complexity  

Children should be able to - Add several numbers of increasing complexity. Add several numbers with different numbers of decimal places (including money and measures):

  • Tenths, hundredths and thousandths should be correctly aligned, with the decimal point lined up vertically including in the answer row.
  • Zeros could be added into any empty decimal places, to show there is no value to add.
  • Adding several numbers with more than 4 digits.  

 

Stage Four

Stage Five

Stage Six

+ = signs and missing numbers

Continue using a range of equations as in Stage 1 and 2 but with appropriate numbers.

Partition into tens and ones and recombine

Either partition both numbers and recombine or partition the second number only e.g.

55 + 37 = 55 + 30 + 7

             = 85 + 7

             = 92

Add the nearest multiple of 10, then adjust

Continue as in Stage 2 and 3 but with appropriate numbers e.g. 63 + 29 is the same as 63 + 30 - 1

Pencil and paper procedures

367 + 185 = 431

either                     or

   367                         300 + 60 + 7

+185                        100 + 80 + 5  

   12                         400 +140+12 = 552

140

400

552

leading to

   367

+185

   552

     1 1    

Extend to decimals in the context of money.

+ = signs and missing numbers

Continue using a range of equations as in Stage 1 and 2 but with appropriate numbers.

Partition into hundreds, tens and ones and recombine

Either partition both numbers and recombine or partition the second number only e.g.

358 + 73 = 358 + 70 + 3

               = 428 + 3

               = 431

Add or subtract the nearest multiple of 10 or 100, then adjust

Continue as in Stage 2, 3 and 4 but with appropriate numbers e.g. 458 + 79 = is the same as 458 + 80 - 1    

Pencil and paper procedures

Extend to numbers with at least four digits

3587 + 675 = 4262

   3587

+ 675

4262

     1 1 1      

Revert to expanded methods if the children experience any difficulty.

Extend to up to two places of decimals (same number of decimals places) and adding several numbers (with different numbers of digits).

               +54.6

            127.4

             1 1

+ = signs and missing numbers

Continue using a range of equations as in Stage 1 and 2 but with appropriate numbers.

Partition into hundreds, tens, ones and decimal fractions and recombine

Either partition both numbers and recombine or partition the second number only e.g.

                 = 42.8 + 0.3

                 = 43.1

Add the nearest multiple of 10, 100 or 1000, then adjust

Continue as in Stage 2, 3, 4 and 5 but with appropriate numbers including extending to adding 0.9, 1.9, 2.9 etc

Pencil and paper procedures

Extend to numbers with any number of digits and decimals with 1, 2 and/or 3 decimal places.

   13.86

+   9.481

   23.341

     1 1  1

Revert to expanded methods if the children experience any difficulty.

Calculation Guidelines for Gifted and Talented Children Working Beyond Primary Level

Extend to decimals with up to 2 decimal

places, including:

  • sums with different numbers of digits;
  • totals of more than two numbers.

Use compensation by adding too much, and then compensating

SUBTRACTION

The aim is that children use mental methods when appropriate, but for calculations that they cannot do in their heads they use an efficient written method accurately and with confidence. Children are entitled to be taught and to acquire secure mental methods of calculation and one efficient written method of calculation for subtraction which they know they can rely on when mental methods are not appropriate. These notes show the stages in building up to using an efficient method for subtraction of up to 5 whole numbers by the end of Stage 5.

To subtract successfully, children need to be able to: recall all addition and subtraction facts to 20; subtract multiples of 10 (such as 160 – 70) using the related subtraction fact,16 – 7, and their knowledge of place value; partition two-digit and three-digit numbers into multiples of one hundred, ten and one in different ways (e.g. partition 74 into 70 + 4 or 60 + 14). Note: It is important that children’s mental methods of calculation are practised and secured alongside their learning and use of an efficient written method for subtraction. Using and Applying - Before children move onto the next stage in written calculation it is important that their skills are broadened through their use and application in a range of contexts (including money, time and other measures).                    

Subtraction - Stage One

Key vocabulary: equal to, take, take away, less, minus, subtract, leaves, distance between, how many more, how many fewer / less than, most, least, count back, how many left, how much less is_?   Key skills for subtraction at Stage 1:

  • Given a number, say one more or one less
  • Count to and over 100, forward and back, from any number
  • Represent and use subtraction facts to 20 and within 20
  • Subtract with one-digit and two-digit numbers to 20, including zero
  • Solve one-step problems that involve addition and subtraction, using concrete objects (ie bead string, objects, cubes) and pictures, and missing number problems
  • Read and write numbers from 0 to 20 in numerals and words

Children should be able to - Subtract from numbers up to 20. Children consolidate understanding of subtraction practically, showing subtraction on bead strings, using cubes etc. and in familiar contexts, and introduced to more formal recording using number. Subtract by taking away on number lines. Find the distance between two points.   Mental subtraction - Children should start recalling subtraction facts up to and within 10 and 20, and should be able to subtract zero.

Subtraction - Stage Two

Key vocabulary: equal to, take, take away, less, minus, subtract, leaves, distance between, how many more, how many fewer / less than, most, least, count back , how many left, how much less is_? difference, count on, strategy, partition, tens, units Key skills for subtraction at Stage 2:

  • Recognise the place value of each digit in a two-digit number
  • Recall and use subtraction facts to 20 fluently, and derive and use related facts up to 100
  • Subtract using concrete objects, pictorial representations, 100 squares and subtract mentally, including: a two-digit number and units, a two-digit number and tens, and two two-digit numbers
  • Show that subtraction of one number from another cannot be done in any order
  • Recognise and use inverse relationship between addition and subtraction, using this to check calculations and missing number problems
  • Solve simple addition and subtraction problems including measures, using concrete objects, pictorial representation, and also applying their increasing knowledge of mental and written methods
  • Read and write numbers to at least 100 in numerals and in words  

Children should be able to - Subtract with 2-digit numbers. Subtract on a number line by counting back, aiming to develop mental subtraction skills. This strategy will be used for: 2-digit numbers subtracting units (by taking away / counting back) e.g. 36—7, 2-digit numbers subtracting tens (by taking away / counting back) e.g. 48—30, subtracting pairs of 2-digit numbers.

Subtraction - Stage Three

Key vocabulary: equal to, take, take away, less, minus, subtract, leaves, distance between, how many more, how many fewer / less than, most, least, count back , how many left, how much less is_? difference, count on, strategy, partition, tens, units, borrowing, decrease, hundreds, value, digit Key skills for subtraction at Stage 3:

  • Subtract mentally a: 3-digit number and units, 3-digit number and tens, 3-digit number and hundreds
  • Estimate answers and use inverse operations to check
  • Solve problems, including missing number problems
  • Find 10 or 100 more or less than a given number
  • Recognise the place value of each digit in a 3-digit number
  • Counting up differences as a mental strategy when numbers are close together or near multiples of 10
  • Read and write numbers up to 1000 in numerals and words
  • Practise mental subtraction strategies, such as subtracting near multiples of 10 and adjusting (e.g. subtracting 19 or 21), and select most appropriate methods to subtract, explaining why

Children should be able to - Subtract with 2 and 3-digit numbers. Introduce partitioned column subtraction method.   Approximating before calculating answer should be encouraged. Counting on as a mental strategy for subtraction: Continue to reinforce counting on as a strategy for close-together numbers (e.g. 121—118), and also for numbers that are nearly multiples of 10, 100, 1000 or £s, which make it easier to count on (e.g. 102-89, 131—79, or calculating change from £1 etc.). Start at the smaller number and count on in tens first, then count on in units to find the rest of the difference:  

 

Stage One

Stage Two

Stage Three

- = signs and missing numbers

7 - 3 =                     = 7 - 3

7 -  = 4                   4 =  - 3

 - 3 = 4                   4 = 7 - 

 - Ñ = 4                   4 =  - Ñ

  • Understand subtraction as 'take away'

    

  • Find a 'difference' by counting up;

I have saved 5p. The socks that I want to buy cost 11p. How much more do I need in order to buy the socks?

  • Use practical and informal written methods to support the subtraction of a one-digit number from a one digit or two-digit number and a multiple of 10 from a two-digit number.

I have 11 toy cars. There are 5 cars too many to fit in the garage. How many cars fit in the garage?

                                                              -5


Use the vocabulary related to addition and subtraction and symbols to describe and record addition and subtraction number sentences

Recording by

- drawing jumps on prepared lines

- constructing own lines

- = signs and missing numbers

Continue using a range of equations as in Stage 1 but with appropriate numbers.

Extend to 14 + 5 = 20 - 

Find a small difference by counting up

42 – 39 = 3

Subtract 9 or 11. Begin to add/subtract 19 or 21

35 – 9 = 26

Use known number facts and place value to subtract(partition second number only)

37 – 12 = 37 – 10 – 2

             = 27 – 2

             = 25

25

27

37


               

32

22

20

15

-10

-2

-5

Bridge through 10 where necessary                             32 - 17                  

- = signs and missing numbers

Continue using a range of equations as in Stage 1 and 2 but with appropriate numbers.

Find a small difference by counting up

Continue as in Stage 2 but with appropriate numbers e.g. 102 – 97 = 5

 

Subtract mentally a ‘near multiple of 10’ to or from a two-digit number

Continue as in Stage 2 but with appropriate numbers e.g. 78 – 49 is the same as 78 – 50 + 1

 

Use known number facts and place value to subtract

Continue as in Year 2 but with appropriate numbers e.g.97 – 15 = 72

     82         87                                 97


             -5

                                         -10

With practice, children will need to record less information and decide whether to count back or forward. It is useful to ask children whether counting up or back is the more efficient for calculations

such as 57 – 12, 86 – 77 or 43 – 28.

 

Pencil and paper procedures

Complementary addition

84 – 56 = 28

                               +20

             +4                                               +4


       56           60                               80           84

Subtraction - Stage Four

Key vocabulary: equal to, take, take away, less, minus, subtract, leaves, distance between, how many more, how many fewer / less than, most, least, count back, how many left, how much less is_? difference, count on, strategy, partition, tens, units, borrowing, decrease, hundreds, value, digit, inverse. Key skills for subtraction at Stage 4:

  • Subtract by counting on where numbers are close together or they are near to multiples of 10, 100 etc
  • Children select the most appropriate and efficient methods for given subtraction calculations
  • Estimate and use inverse operations to check answers
  • Solve addition and subtraction 2-step problems, choosing which operations and methods to use and why
  • Solve simple measure and money problems involving fractions and decimals to two decimal places
  • Find 1000 more or less than a given number
  • Count backwards through zero, including negative numbers
  • Recognise place value of each digit in a 4-digit number Round any number to the nearest 10, 100 or 1000
  • Solve number and practical problems that involve the above, with increasingly large positive numbers

Children should be able to - Subtract with up to 4-digit numbers Partitioned column subtraction with borrowing. (decomposition): Mental strategies: A variety of mental strategies must be taught and practised, including counting on to find the difference where numbers are closer together, or where it is easier to count on.

Subtraction - Stage Five

Key vocabulary: equal to, take, take away, less, minus, subtract, leaves, distance between, how many more, how many fewer / less than, most, least, count back, how many left, how much less is_? difference, count on, strategy, partition, tens, units, borrowing, decrease, hundreds, value, digit, inverse, tenths, hundredths, decimal point, decimal. Key skills for subtraction at Stage 5:

  • Subtract numbers mentally with increasingly large numbers
  • Use rounding and estimation to check answers to calculations and determine, in a range of contexts, levels of accuracy
  • Solve addition and subtraction multi-step problems in context, deciding which operations and methods to use and why
  • Read, write, order and compare numbers to at least 1 million and determine the value of each digit
  • Count forwards or backwards in steps of powers of 10 for any given number up to 1 million
  • Interpret negative numbers in context, counting forwards and backwards with positive and negative integers through 0
  • Round any number up to 1 million to the nearest 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 and 100 000

Children should be able to - Subtract with at least 4-digit numbers including money, measures, decimals. Compact column subtraction (with borrowing.). Children who are still not secure with number facts and place value will need to remain on the partitioned column method until ready for the compact method. Subtracting with larger integers. Subtract with decimal values, including mixtures of integers and decimals, aligning the decimal point.

Subtraction - Stage Six

Key vocabulary: equal to, take, take away, less, minus, subtract, leaves, distance between, how many more, how many fewer / less than, most, least, count back , how many left, how much less is_? difference, count on, strategy, partition, tens, borrowing, decrease, hundreds, value, digit, inverse, tenths, hundredths, decimal point, decimal. Key skills for subtraction at Stage6:

  • Solve addition and subtraction multi-step problems in context, deciding which operations and methods to use and why
  • Read, write, order and compare numbers up to 10 million and determine the value of each digit
  • Round any whole number to a required degree of accuracy
  • Use negative numbers in context, and calculate intervals across zero
  • Children need to utilise and consider a range of mental subtraction strategies, jottings and written methods before choosing how to calculate

Children should be able to - Subtract with increasingly large and more complex numbers and decimal values. Use the compact column method to subtract more complex integers. Use the compact column method to subtract money and measures, including decimals with different numbers of decimal places. Pupils should be able to apply their knowledge of a range of mental strategies, mental recall skills, and informal and formal written methods when selecting the most appropriate method to work out subtraction problems.

Stage Four

Stage Five

Stage Six

Find a small difference by counting up

This can be modelled on an empty number line (see complementary addition below). Children should be encouraged to use known number facts to reduce the number of steps.

Subtract the nearest multiple of 10, then adjust.

Continue as in Stage 2 and 3 but with appropriate numbers.

Use known number facts and place value to subtract

92 – 25 = 67

Pencil and paper procedures

Complementary addition

754 – 86 = 668

For those children with a secure mental image of the number line they could record the jumps only:
754 – 86 = 668

  

     14 (100)

   600 (700)

      54 (754)

   668

Find a difference by counting up

This can be modelled on an empty number line (see complementary addition below).

Subtract the nearest multiple of 10 or 100, then adjust.

Continue as in Stage 2, 3 and 4 but with appropriate numbers.

Use known number facts and place value to subtract

Pencil and paper procedures

Complementary addition

754 – 286 = 468

OR

754 - 286 = 468                                                                                          

     14 (300)     can be refined to         14 (300)

   400 (700)                                         454 (754)

     54 (754)                                         468

   468

Reduce the number of steps to make the calculation more efficient.

Extend to 2 places of decimals

Find a difference by counting up

  1. 5215

To make this method more efficient, the number of steps should be reduced to a minimum through children knowing:

  • Complements to 1, involving decimals to two decimal places ( 0.16 + 0.84)
  • Complements to 10, 100 and 100

Subtract the nearest multiple of 10, 100 or 1000,

then adjust

Continue as in Stage 2, 3, 4 and 5 but with appropriate numbers.

Use known number facts and place value to subtract

Pencil and paper procedures

Complementary addition

6467 – 2684 = 3783

OR

6467 – 2684 = 3783                                                

       16 (2700)     can be refined to       316 (3000)

     300 (3000)                                     3467 (6467)

   3467 (6467)                                     3783

   3783

Reduce the number of steps to make the calculation more efficient.

Extend to 2 places of decimals

Calculation Guidelines for Gifted and Talented Children Working Beyond Primary Level

Mental methods

Use compensation by subtracting too much, and then compensating

Use jottings such as an empty number line to support or explain methods for adding mentally.

Pencil and paper procedures (Written methods)                                                    Subtract more complicated fractions

                                                                                                                                     For Example:


Extend to decimals with up to 2 decimal

places, including:

  • differences with different numbers of

     digits

  • totals of more than two numbers.

Complementary addition

MULTIPLICATION

The aim is that children use mental methods when appropriate, but for calculations that they cannot do in their heads they use an efficient written method accurately and with confidence. Children are entitled to be taught and to acquire secure mental methods of calculation and one efficient written method of calculation for multiplication which they know they can rely on when mental methods are not appropriate.  

These notes show the stages in building up to using an efficient method for by the end of Stage 4, two-digit by two-digit multiplication by the end of Stage 5, and three-digit by two-digit multiplication by the end of Stage 6.

To multiply successfully, children need to be able to:

  • Recall all multiplication facts to 12 × 12
  • Partition number into multiples of one hundred, ten and one
  • Work out products such as 70 × 5, 70 × 50, 700 × 5 or 700 × 50 using the related fact 7 × 5 and their knowledge of place value
  • Add two or more single-digit numbers mentally
  • Add multiples of 10 (such as 60 + 70) or of 100 (such as 600 + 700) using the related addition fact, 6 + 7, and their knowledge of place value
  • Add combinations of whole numbers using the column method (see above).
  • Use short multiplication to multiply a 1 digit number by a number with up to four digits
  • Use long multiplication to multiply 3 digit and four digit numbers by a number between 11 – 20 by the end of Stage 5
  • Use long multiplication to multiply a two digit number with up to four digits  Use short multiplication to multiply a one digit number by a number with one or two decimal places including money.  

Note: It is important that children’s mental methods of calculation are practised and secured alongside their learning and use of an efficient written method for multiplication.

Using and Applying - Before children move onto the next stage in written calculation it is important that their skills are broadened through their use and application in a range of contexts (including money, time and other measures).    

Multiplication - Stage One

Key vocabulary: groups of, lots of, times, array, altogether, multiply, count. Key skills for multiplication at Stage 1:

  • Count in multiples of 2, 5 and 10
  • Solve one-step problems involving multiplication, by calculating the answer using concrete objects
  • Pictorial representations and arrays with the support of the teacher
  • Make connections between arrays, number patterns, and counting in twos, fives and tens
  • Begin to understand doubling using concrete objects and pictorial representations

Children should be able to - Multiply with concrete objects, arrays and pictorial representations. How many legs will 3 teddies have?   There are 3 sweets in one bag. How many sweets are in 5 bags altogether? 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 15  

Give children experience of counting equal group of objects in 2s, 5s and 10s. Present practical problem solving activities involving counting equal sets or groups, as above.

Multiplication - Stage Two

Key vocabulary: groups of, lots of, times, array, altogether, multiply, count, multiplied by, repeated addition, column, row, commutative, sets of, equal groups, times as big as, once, twice, three times. Key skills for multiplication at Stage2:

  • Count in steps of 2, 3 and 5 from zero, and in 10s from any number
  • Recall and use multiplication facts from the 2, 5 and 10 multiplication tables, including recognising odds and evens
  • Write and calculate number statements using the x and = signs
  • Show that multiplication can be done in any order (commutative)
  • Solve a range of problems involving multiplication, using concrete objects, arrays, repeated addition, mental methods, and multiplication facts
  • Pupils use a variety of language to discuss and describe multiplication  

Children should be able to - Multiply using arrays and repeated addition (using at least 2s, 5s and 10s). Use repeated addition on a number line: Starting from zero, make equal jumps up on a number line to work out multiplication facts and write multiplication statements using x and = signs.   Use arrays: to help teach children to understand the commutative law of multiplication, and give examples such as 3 x __ = 6. Use practical equipment, use mental recall: - Children should begin to recall multiplication facts for 2, 5 and 10 times tables through practice in counting and understanding of the operation.

Multiplication - Stage Three

Key vocabulary: groups of, lots of, times, array, altogether, multiply, count, multiplied by, repeated addition, column, row, commutative, sets of, equal groups, times,         ‘_ times as big as’, once, twice, three times, partition, grid method, multiple, product, tens, units, value Key skills for multiplication at Stage 3:

  • Recall and use multiplication facts for the 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 and 10 multiplication tables, and multiply multiples of 10
  • Write and calculate number statements using the multiplication tables they know, including 2-digit x single-digit, drawing upon mental methods, and progressing to reliable written methods
  • Solve multiplication problems, including missing number problems
  • Develop mental strategies using commutativity (e.g. 4 x 12 x 5 = 4 x 5 x 12 = 20 x 12 = 240)
  • Solve simple problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use
  • Develop efficient mental methods to solve a range of problems e.g. using commutativity (4 × 12 × 5 = 4 × 5 × 12 = 20 × 12 = 240) and for missing number problems x 5 = 20, 3 x = 18, x = 32

Children should be able to - Multiply 2-digits by a single digit number. Introduce the grid method for multiplying 2-digit by single-digits. Introduce the grid method with children physically making an array to represent the calculation (e.g. make 8 lots of 23 with 10s and 1s place value counters), then translate this to grid method format. To do this, children must be able to:

  • Partition numbers into tens and units
  • Multiply multiples of ten by a single digit (e.g. 20 x 4) using their knowledge of multiplication facts and place value
  • Recall and work out multiplication facts in the 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 and 10 times tables.
  • Work out multiplication facts not known by repeated addition or other taught mental strategies (e.g. by commutative law, working out near multiples and adjusting, using doubling etc.)

Strategies to support this are repeated addition using a number line, bead bars and arrays.

Stage One

Stage Two

Stage Three

Multiplication is related to doubling and counting groups of the same size.

          

Looking at columns                       Looking at rows

2 + 2 + 2                                         3 + 3

3 groups of 2                                  2 groups of 3

Counting using a variety of practical resources

Counting in 2s e.g. counting socks, shoes, animal’s legs…

Counting in 5s e.g. counting fingers, fingers in gloves, toes…

Counting in 10s e.g. fingers, toes…

Pictures / marks

There are 3 sweets in one bag.

How many sweets are there in 5 bags?

x = signs and missing numbers

7 x 2 =                         = 2 x 7

7 x  = 14                   14 =  x 7

 x 2 = 14                   14 = 2 x 

 x Ñ = 14                   14 =  x Ñ

Arrays and repeated addition

l  l   l   l   4 x 2 or 4 + 4

l  l   l   l

       2 x 4 or 2 + 2 + 2 + 2

Doubling multiples of 5 up to 50

15 x 2 = 30

Partition

Children need to be secure with partitioning numbers into 10s and 1s and partitioning in different ways: 6 = 5 + 1 so

      

       AND double 15

       10     +       5


           

                                     20     +       10      = 30

OR

                                    X     10       5


                                    2     20       10     = 30

x = signs and missing numbers

Continue using a range of equations as in Stage 2 but with appropriate numbers.

Arrays and repeated addition

Continue to understand multiplication as repeated addition and continue to use arrays (as in Stage 2).

Doubling multiples of 5 up to 50

35 x 2 = 70

Partition


            X       30           5


            2       60           10             =70


Use known facts and place value to carry out simple multiplications

Use the same method as above (partitioning), e.g.

32 x 3 = 96                        

= 96

Multiplication - Stage Four

Key vocabulary: groups of, lots of, times, array, altogether, multiply, count, multiplied by, repeated addition, array, column, row, commutative, groups of, sets of, lots of, equal groups, times, multiply, times as big as, once, twice, three times... partition, grid method, total, multiple, product, sets of, inverse Key skills for multiplication at Stage 4:

  • Count in multiples of 6, 7, 9, 25 and 1000
  • Recall multiplication facts for all multiplication tables up to 12 x 12
  • Recognise place value of digits in up to 4-digit numbers
  • Use place value, known facts and derived facts to multiply mentally, e.g. multiply by 1, 10, 100, by 0, or to multiply 3 numbers
  • Use commutativity and other strategies mentally 3 x 6 = 6 x 3 , 2 x 6 x 5 = 10 x 6 , 39x7 = 30 x 7 + 9 x 7
  • Solve problems with increasingly complex multiplication in a range of contexts
  • Count in multiples of 6, 7, 9, 25 and 1000
  • Recognise the place value of each digit in a four-digit number (thousands, hundreds, tens, and units)

Children should be able to - Multiply 2 and 3-digits by a single digit, using all multiplication tables up to 12 x 12 Developing the grid method: Encourage the use of column addition when adding. Move onto short multiplication (see Stage 5) if and when children are confident and accurate multiplying 2 and 3-digit numbers by a single digit this way, and are already confident in carrying for written addition.   To do this, children should: Approximate before they calculate, and make this a regular part of their calculating, going back to the approximation to check the reasonableness of their answer. e.g: 346 x 9 is approximately 350 x 10 = 3500. Record an approximation to check the final answer against. Multiply multiples of ten and one hundred by a single-digit, using their multiplication table knowledge. Recall all times tables up to 12 x 12

Multiplication - Stage Five

Key vocabulary: groups of, lots of, times, array, altogether, multiply, count, multiplied by, repeated addition, column, row, commutative, sets of, equal groups, ‘_times as big as’, once, twice, three times, partition, grid method, total, multiple, product, inverse, square, factor, integer, decimal, short/long multiplication, carry. Key skills for multiplication at Stage 5:

  • Identify multiples and factors, using knowledge of multiplication tables to 12x12
  • Solve problems where larger numbers are decomposed into their factors
  • Multiply and divide integers and decimals by 10, 100 and 1000
  • Recognise and use square and cube numbers and their notation
  • Solve problems involving combinations of operations, choosing and using calculations and methods appropriately

Children should be able to - Multiply up to 4-digits by 1 or 2 digits. Be introduced to column multiplication - Introduce by comparing a grid method calculation to a short multiplication method, to see how the steps are related, but notice how there are less steps involved in the column method. Children need to be taught to approximate first, e.g. for 72 x 38, they will use rounding: 72 x 38 is approximately 70 x 40 = 2800, and use the approximation to check the reasonableness of their answer. Use short multiplication for multiplying by a single digit. Pupils could be asked to work out a given calculation using the grid, and then compare it to the column method. What are the similarities and differences? Unpick the steps and show how it reduces the steps. Introduce long multiplication for multiplying by 2 digits. The grid could be used to introduce long multiplication, as the relationship can be seen in the answers in each row. Moving towards more complex numbers.

Multiplication - Stage Six

Key vocabulary: groups of, lots of, times, array, altogether, multiply, count, multiplied by, repeated addition, array, column, row, commutative, sets of, equal groups, times as big as, once, twice, three times, partition, grid method, total, multiple, product, inverse, square, factor, integer, decimal, short / long multiplication, carry, tenths, hundredths, decimal. Key skills for multiplication at Stage 6:

  • Recall multiplication facts for all times tables up to 12 x 12 (as Y4 and Y5)
  • Multiply multi-digit numbers, up to 4-digit x 2-digit using long multiplication
  • Perform mental calculations with mixed operations and large numbers
  • Solve multi-step problems in a range of contexts, choosing appropriate combinations of operations and methods
  • Estimate answers using round and approximation and determine levels of accuracy
  • Round any integer to a required degree of accuracy. Suggested Video clips: - Moving from grid method to a compact method (YouTube) - Reinforcing rapid times table recall: (YouTube) - Demonstration of long multiplication (SLEP)  

Children should be able to - use Short and long multiplication as in Stage 5, and multiply decimals with up to 2d.p by a single digit. Use rounding and place value to make approximations before calculating and use these to check answers. Use short multiplication (see Stage 5) to multiply numbers with more than 4-digits by a single digit; to multiply money and measures. Use long multiplication (see Stage 5) to multiply numbers with at least 4 digits by a 2-digit number.

 

Stage Four

Stage Five

Stage Six

x = signs and missing numbers

Continue using a range of equations as in Stage 2 but with appropriate numbers

Partition

Continue to use arrays:

18 x 9 = 162

18 x 9 = (10 x 9) + (8 x 9) = 162

 

OR

Use the grid method of multiplication (as below)

 

Pencil and paper procedures

Grid method

23 x 7 is approximately 20 x 10 = 200

           

            x     20         3


            7   140       21       = 161

Partition

47 x 6 = 282

47 x 6 = (40 x 6) + (7 x 6) = 282

OR

Use the grid method of multiplication (as below)

Pencil and paper procedures

Grid method

72 x 38 is approximately 70 x 40 = 2800

2100 + 60 = 2160

                                           560 + 16 = 576

                                           2160

                                             560 +


                                                     2736

Expanded Column Multiplication

Children should describe what they do by referring to the actual values of the digits in the columns. For example, the first step in 38 × 7 is ‘thirty multiplied by seven’, not ‘three times seven’, although the relationship 3 × 7 should be stressed.

30 + 8                                           38

x   7                                         x 7  

     56   (8 x 7 = 56)                       56

   210   (30 x 7 = 210)                 210

   266                                           266

Partition

87 x 6 = 522

87 x 6 = (80 x 6) + (7 x 6) = 522

OR

Use the grid method of multiplication (as below)

Pencil and paper procedures

Grid method

372 x 24 is approximately 400 x 20 = 8000

Extend to decimals with up to two decimal places.

Short Column Multiplication

The recording is reduced further, with carry digits recorded below the line.

         38

     x   7

      266

         5

Children who are already secure with multiplication for TU × U and TU × TU should have little difficulty in using the same method for HTU × TU or applying decimals.

       286

     x 29

     2574     (9 x 286 = 2574)

     5720     (20 x 286 = 5720)

     8294

     1

Calculation Guidelines for Gifted and Talented Children Working Beyond Primary Level

 

Mental methods

Use partitioning

Partition either part of the product e.g. 7.3 x 11   =   (7.3 x 10) + 7.3 = 80.3

OR

Use the grid method of multiplication (as below).

 

 

Pencil and paper procedures (Written methods)

Use written methods to support, record or explain multiplication of:

  • a three-digit number by a two-digit number
  • a decimal with one or two decimal places by a single digit

Grid method

= 49.92

Grid lines can become optional

 
       

DIVISION

The aim is that children use mental methods when appropriate, but for calculations that they cannot do in their heads they use an efficient written method accurately and with confidence. Children are entitled to be taught and to acquire secure mental methods of calculation and one efficient written method of calculation for division which they know they can rely on when mental methods are not appropriate.  

These notes show the stages in building up to long division through Stages 3 to 6 – first long division TU ÷ U, extending to HTU ÷ U, then HTU ÷ TU, and then short division HTU ÷ U. To divide successfully in their heads, children need to be able to:

  • Understand and use the vocabulary of division – for example in 18 ÷ 3 = 6, the 18 is the dividend, the 3 is the divisor and the 6 is the quotient
  • Partition two-digit and three-digit numbers into multiples of 100, 10 and 1 in different ways
  • Recall multiplication and division facts to 10 × 10, recognise multiples of one-digit numbers and divide multiples of 10 or 100 by a single-digit number using their knowledge of division facts and place value
  • Know how to find a remainder working mentally – for example, find the remainder when 48 is divided by 5
  • Understand and use multiplication and division as inverse operations

Note: It is important that children’s mental methods of calculation are practised and secured alongside their learning and use of an efficient written method for division.

To carry out written methods of division successful, children also need to be able to:

  • Understand division as repeated subtraction
  • Estimate how many times one number divides into another – for example, how many sixes there are in 47, or how many 23s there are in 92
  • Multiply a two-digit number by a single-digit number mentally
  • Subtract numbers using the column method

Using and Applying - Before children move onto the next stage in written calculation it is important that their skills are broadened through their use and application in a range of contexts (including money, time and other measures).

 

 

 

 

 

Division - Stage One

Key Vocabulary: share, share equally, one each, two each…, group, groups of, lots of, array, Key skills for division at Stage 1:

  • Solve one-step problems involving multiplication and division, by calculating the answer using concrete objects, pictorial representations arrays with the support of the teacher
  • Through grouping and sharing small quantities, pupils begin to understand division, and finding simple fractions of objects, numbers and quantities
  • Children can make connections between arrays, number patterns, and counting in twos, fives and tens

Children should be able to - Group and share large quantities. Using objects, diagrams and pictorial representations to solve problems involving both grouping and sharing. Pupils should: - Use lots of practical apparatus, arrays and picture representations. Be taught to understand the difference between ‘grouping’ objects (How many groups of 2 can you make?) and ‘sharing’. (Share these sweets between 2 people). Be able to count in multiples of 2s, 5s and 10s. Find half of a group of objects by sharing into 2 equal groups.

Division - Stage Two

Key Vocabulary: share, share equally, one each, two each…, group, equal groups of, lots of, array, divide, divided by, divided into, division, grouping, number line, left, left over Key skills for division at Stage 2:

  • Count in steps of 2, 3, and 5 from 0
  • Recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 2, 5 and 10 multiplication tables, including recognising odd and even numbers
  • Calculate mathematical statements for multiplication and division within the multiplication tables and write them using the x, ÷ and = signs
  • Show that multiplication of two numbers can be done in any order (commutative) and division of one number by another cannot
  • Solve problems involving multiplication and division, using materials, arrays, repeated addition, mental methods, and multiplication and division facts, including problems in contexts

Children should be able to - Group and share, using the ÷ and = sign Use objects, arrays, diagrams and pictorial representations, and grouping on a number line. Pose 12 ÷ 3 as ‘How many groups of 3 are in 12?’

Division - Stage Three

Key Vocabulary: share, share equally, one each, two each…, group, equal groups of, lots of, array, divide, divided by, divided into, division, grouping, number line, left, left over, inverse, short division, carry, remainder, multiple . Key skills for division at Stage 3:

  • Recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 and 10 multiplication tables (through doubling, connect the 2, 4 and 8s)
  • Write and calculate mathematical statements for multiplication and division using the multiplication tables that they know, including for two-digit numbers times one-digit numbers, using mental and progressing to formal written methods
  • Solve problems, in contexts, and including missing number problems, involving multiplication and division
  • Pupils develop efficient mental methods, for example, using multiplication and division facts (e.g. using 3 × 2 = 6, 6 ÷ 3 = 2 and 2 = 6 ÷ 3) to derive related facts (30 × 2 = 60, so 60 ÷ 3 = 20 and 20 = 60 ÷ 3)
  • Pupils develop reliable written methods for division, starting with calculations of 2-digit numbers by 1-digit numbers and progressing to the formal written method of short division

Children should be able to - Divide 2-digit numbers by a single digit (where there is no remainder in the final answer). Step 1: When the answer for the first column is zero (1 ÷ 5, as in example), children could initially write a zero above to acknowledge its place, and must always carry the number (1) over to the next digit as a remainder. STEP 2: Pupils move onto dividing numbers with up to 3digits by a single digit, however problems and calculations provided should not result in a final answer with remainder at this stage. Children who exceed this expectation may progress to Stage 5.   Include money and measure contexts when confident. Real life contexts need to be used routinely to help pupils gain a full understanding, and the ability to recognise the place of division and how to apply it to problems .

 

Stage One

Stage Two

Stage Three

Sharing

Requires secure counting skills

-see counting and understanding number strand    

Develops importance of one-to-one correspondence

See appendix for additional information on x and ÷ and aspects of number

               

Sharing – 6 sweets are shared between 2 people. How many do they have each?

        

             lll         lll

Practical activities involving sharing, distributing cards when playing a game, putting objects onto plates, into cups, hoops etc.

Grouping

Sorting objects into 2s / 3s/ 4s etc

How many pairs of socks are there?

There are 12 crocus bulbs. Plant 3 in each pot. How many pots are there?

Jo has 12 Lego wheels. How many cars can she make?

÷ = signs and missing numbers

6 ÷ 2 =                     = 6 ÷ 2

6 ÷  = 3                   3 = 6 ÷ 

 ÷ 2 = 3                   3 =  ÷ 2

 ÷ Ñ = 3                 3 =  ÷ Ñ

Grouping

Link to counting and understanding number strand

Count up to 100 objects by grouping them and counting in tens, fives or twos;…  

Find one half, one quarter and three quarters of shapes and sets of objects

6 ¸ 2 can be modelled as:

There are 6 strawberries.

How many people can have 2 each? How many 2s make 6?

6 ¸ 2 can be modelled as:

                              

              

In the context of money count forwards and backwards using 2p, 5p and 10p coins

Practical grouping e.g. in PE

12 children get into teams of 4 to play a game. How many teams are there?

÷ = signs and missing numbers

Continue using a range of equations as in Stage 2 but with appropriate numbers.

 

Understand division as sharing and grouping

18 ÷ 3 can be modelled as:

Sharing – 18 shared between 3 (see Year 1 diagram)

OR

Grouping - How many 3’s make 18?

   0     3       6       9       12   15     18

    

 

Remainders

16 ÷ 3 = 5 r1

Sharing - 16 shared between 3, how many left over?

Grouping – How many 3’s make 16, how many left over?

   0       3       6       9     12     15 16

Division - Stage Four

Key Vocabulary: share, share equally, one each, two each…, group, equal groups of, lots of, array, divide, divided by, divided into, division, grouping, number line, left, left over, inverse, short division, carry, remainder, multiple, divisible by, factor. Key skills needed for division at Stage 4:

  • Recall multiplication and division facts for all numbers up to 12 x 12
  • Use place value, known and derived facts to multiply and divide mentally, including: multiplying and dividing by 10 and 100 and 1
  • Pupils practise to become fluent in the formal written method of short division with exact answers when dividing by a one-digit number
  • Pupils practise mental methods and extend this to three-digit numbers to derive facts, for example 200 × 3 = 600 so 600 ÷ 3 = 200
  • Pupils solve two-step problems in contexts, choosing the appropriate operation, working with increasingly harder numbers. This should include correspondence questions such as three cakes shared equally between 10 children

Children should be able to - Divide up to 3-digit numbers by a single digit (without remainders initially) Continue to develop short division:   STEP 1: Pupils must be secure with the process of short division for dividing 2-digit numbers by a single digit (those that do not result in a final remainder - see steps in Stage 3), but must understand how to calculate remainders, using this to carry remainders within the calculation process. Short division should only be taught once children have secured the skill of calculating “remainders”. Real life contexts need to be used routinely to help pupils gain a full understanding and the ability to recognise the place of division and how to apply it to problems.

Division - Stage Five

Key Vocabulary: share, share equally, one each, two each…, group, equal groups of, lots of, array, divide, divided by, divided into, division, grouping, number line, left, left over, inverse, short division, carry, remainder, multiple, divisible by, factor, inverse, quotient, prime number, prime factors, composite number (non-prime). Key skills for division at Stage 5:

  • Recall multiplication and division facts for all numbers up to 12 x 12 (as in Y4)
  • Multiply and divide numbers mentally, drawing upon known facts
  • Identify multiples and factors, including finding all factor pairs of a number, and common factors of two numbers
  • Solve problems involving multiplication and division where larger numbers are decomposed into their factors
  • Multiply and divide whole numbers and those involving decimals by 10, 100 and 1000
  • Use the vocabulary of prime numbers, prime factors and composite (non-prime) numbers
  • Work out whether a number up to 100 is prime, and recall prime numbers to 19
  • Divide numbers up to 4 digits by a one-digit number using the formal written method of short division and interpret remainders appropriately for the context
  • Use multiplication and division as inverses
  • Interpret non-integer answers to division by expressing results in different ways according to the context, including with remainders, as fractions, as decimals or by rounding (e.g. 98 ÷ 4 = 24 r 2 = 24 ½ = 24.5 ˜ 25)
  • Solve problems involving combinations of all four operations, including understanding of the equals sign, and including division for scaling by different fractions and problems involving simple rates.

Children should be able to - Divide up to 4 digits by a single digit, including those with remainders. Short division with remainders: Now that pupils are introduced to examples that give rise to remainder answers, division needs to have a real life problem solving context, where pupils consider the meaning of the remainder and how to express it, i.e. as a fraction, a decimal, or as a rounded number or value, depending upon the context of the problem. The answer to 5309 ÷ 8 could be expressed as 663 and five eighths, 663 r 5, as a decimal, or rounded as appropriate to the problem involved. Include money and measure contexts. See Stage 6 for how to continue the short division to give a decimal answer for children who are confident.   If children are confident and accurate: Introduce long division for pupils who are ready to divide any number by a 2-digit number (e.g. 2678 ÷ 19). This is a Stage 6 expectation.

Division - Stage Six

Key Vocabulary: share, share equally, one each, two each…, group, equal groups of, lots of, array, divide, divided by, divided into, division, grouping, number line, left, left over, inverse, short division, carry, remainder, multiple, divisible by, factor, inverse, quotient, prime number, prime factors, composite number (non-prime), common factor. Key skill for division at Stage 6:

  • Recall and use multiplication and division facts for all numbers to 12 x 12 for more complex calculations
  • Divide numbers up to 4 digits by a two-digit whole number using the formal written method of long division, and interpret remainders as whole number remainders, fractions, or by rounding, as appropriate for the context
  • Use short division where appropriate
  • Perform mental calculations, including with mixed operations and large numbers
  • Identify common factors, common multiples and prime numbers
  • Solve problems involving all 4 operations
  • Use estimation to check answers to calculations and determine accuracy, in the context of a problem
  • Use written division methods in cases where the answer has up to two decimal places
  • Solve problems which require answers to be rounded to specified degrees of accuracy

Children should be able to - Divide at least 4 digits by both single-digit and 2-digit numbers (including decimal numbers and quantities). Short division with remainders: Pupils should continue to use this method, but with numbers to at least 4 digits, and understand how to express remainders as fractions, decimals, whole number remainders, or rounded numbers. Real life problem solving contexts need to be the starting point, where pupils have to consider the most appropriate way to express the remainder.

Stage Four

Stage Five

Stage Six

÷ = signs and missing numbers

Continue using a range of equations as in Stage 2 but with appropriate numbers.

Sharing and grouping

30 ÷ 6 can be modelled as:

grouping – groups of 6 placed on no. line and the number of groups counted e.g.

sharing – sharing among 6, the number given to each person

Remainders

41 ÷ 4 = 10 r1

41 = (10 x 4) + 1

Pencil and paper procedures- Chunking.

72 ÷ 5 lies between 50 ¸ 5 = 10 and 100 ¸ 5 = 20

* Partition the dividend into multiples of the divisor:

                                50 ÷ 5 = 10

                                22 ÷ 5 = 4r2 ® 10 + 4r2 = 14 r 2

                                                OR  

72

-     50     (10 groups)

22

-     20       (4 groups)

                                                               2                          

Answer : 14 remainder 2

Sharing and grouping

Continue to understand division as both sharing and grouping (repeated subtraction).

Remainders

Quotients expressed as fractions or decimal fractions

61 ÷ 4 = 15 ¼ or 15.25

Pencil and paper procedures- Chunking

256 ÷ 7 lies between 210 ¸ 7 = 30 and 280 ¸ 7 = 40

* Partition the dividend into multiples of the divisor:

                                210 ÷ 7 = 30

                                46 ÷ 7 = 6r4 ® 30 + 6r4 = 36r4

OR

                                                      256

   - 210     (30 groups)

                                            46

                                                  -   42       (6 groups)

                                         4                                

Answer: 36 remainder 4

Also, Short Division for More Able Children

               

Considering each column starting from the left. See Stage Six for full explanation.

Sharing, grouping and remainders as Stage Five

Pencil and paper procedures- Chunking

977 ÷ 36 is approximately 1000 ¸ 40 = 25

* Partition the dividend into multiples of the divisor:

                                720 ÷ 36 = 20

                                180 ÷ 36 = 5

                                77 ÷ 36 = 2r5 ® 20 + 5 + 2r5 = 27r5

                                               OR

                                                                       977                                          

-     720     (20 groups)                

                                                               257                                                                                  

                                                                -     180     (5 groups)                    

                                                                     77    

                                                                -       72     (2 groups)

                                                                          5                                      

Answer: 27 5/36

Pencil and Paper procedures- Short Division Method

Write down how many times your divisor goes into the first number of the dividend.If there is a remainder, that's okay.

Write down your remainderto the left of the next digit in the dividend.

  1. Repeat steps 1-3 until you are done.

Both methods above are necessary at this stage, to deal with the wide range of problems experienced at Stage Six.

Calculation Guidelines for Gifted and Talented Children Working Beyond Primary Level

Pencil and paper procedures (Written methods)

Use written methods to support, record or explain division of:

  • a three-digit number by a two-digit number
  • a decimal with one or two decimal places by a single digit.

Refine methods to improve efficiency while maintaining accuracy and understanding.

  1. 6 ÷ 8 is approximately 110 ÷ 10 = 11.

       109.6

   -   80       (10 groups of 8)

       29.6

   -   24         ( 3 )

         5.6

   -     5.6       ( 0.7 )

         0.0

       Answer:   13.7

Pencil and paper procedures (Written methods)

Continue to use the same method as in Year 7 and Year 8. Adjust the dividend and divisor by a common factor before the division so that no further adjustment is needed after the calculation

             e.g.            361.6 ÷ 0.8 is equivalent to 3616 ÷ 8

Use the inverse rule to divide fractions, first converting mixed numbers to improper fractions.

Look at one half of a shape.

How many sixths of the shape can

you see? (six)

So, how many sixths in one half? (three)

So ½ ÷ 1/6 = ½ x 6/1

                                                = 6/2

                                                = 3

Date Policy Adopted by Governing Body

Review dates

April 2015

April 2017

April 2018

Policy developed by: C. Vanson (Headteacher) April 2015

 

Lowick and Holy Island C. of E. First Schools

Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) and Play Policy

The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) applies to children from birth to the end of the Reception year. At Lowick and Holy Island C. of E. First Schools (to be known as the school for the purpose of this document), children join the EYFS Unit in the term in which they become three i.e. ‘Rising 3’s’. They progress through the EYFS becoming Reception aged children in the year that they turn five. In partnership with parents and carers we enable the children to begin the process of becoming active learners for life. We endeavour to ensure that children “learn and develop well and kept healthy and safe.” We aim to support children in their learning through “teaching and experiences that gives children the broad range of skills that provide the right foundation for good progress through school and in life.” (Statutory Framework for the EYFS 2012)

At the school: “Each area of learning and development is implemented through planned, purposeful play and through a mix of adult-led and child-initiated activity. Play is used as an essential part children’s development, building their confidence as they learn to explore, to think about problems, and relate to others. Children learn by leading their own play, and by taking part in play which is guided by adults. There is an on-going judgement to be made by practitioners about the balance between activities led by children, and activities led or guided by adults. Practitioners must respond to each child’s emerging needs and interests, guiding their development through warm, positive interaction. As children grow older, and as their development allows, it is expected that the balance will gradually shift towards more activities led by adults, to help children prepare for more formal learning, ready for Year 1.”

(Statutory Framework for EYFS 2012)  

              

The EYFS is based upon four principles:

A Unique Child

We recognise that every child is a competent learner who can be resilient, capable, confident and self assured. We recognise that children develop in individual ways, at varying rates. Children’s attitudes and dispositions to learning are influenced by feedback from others; we use praise and encouragement, as well as celebration assemblies and rewards, to encourage children to develop a positive attitude to learning.

We meet the needs of all our children through:

Welfare

It is important to us that all children in the school are ‘safe’. We aim to educate children on boundaries, rules and limits and to help them understand why they exist. We provide children with choices to help them develop this important life skill. Children should be allowed to take risks, but need to be taught how to recognise and avoid hazards. We aim to protect the physical and psychological well-being of all children. (See Whole School Safeguarding Policy)

“Children learn best when they are healthy, safe and secure, when their individual needs are met and when they have positive relationships with the adults caring for them.”

(Statutory Framework for the EYFS 2012)  

At the school we understand that we are legally required to comply with certain welfare requirements as stated in the Statutory Framework for Early Years Foundation Stage 2012. We understand that we are required to:

Positive Relationships

At the school we recognise that children learn to be strong independent from secure relationships. We aim to develop caring, respectful, professional relationships with the children and their families.  

Parents as Partners

We recognise that the contribution that parents make. We recognise the role that parents have played, and their future role, in educating the children. We do this through:

Enabling Environments

We aim to create an attractive and stimulating play and learning environment where children feel confident, secure and challenged. The children have daily access to an indoor and outdoor environment that is set up in discrete areas of learning with planned continuous provision.

Effective learning builds and extends upon prior learning and following children’s interest. Effective planning is informed by observations of the children to ensure we follow their current interests and experiences. These observations are recorded using Tapestry and shared with parents immediately.

Play based learning is paramount and children direct their own learning from carefully planned opportunities provided by staff. Staff will enhance play and extend as needed to further individual learning.

Learning and Development

There are seven areas of learning and development, of which three are “Prime Areas,” and four “Specific Areas.”

The Prime Areas are:

Communication and Language

Physical Development

Personal, Social and Emotional Development.

The specific areas are:

Literacy

Mathematics

Understanding of the World and

Expressive Arts and Design

Through careful assessments and observations, including information provided by parents and other settings, children’s development levels are assessed. The balance will shift towards a more equal focus on all areas of learning as children grow in confidence and ability within the three prime areas.  

Planning and guided children’s activities will reflect on the different ways that children learn and reflect these in their practice. At the school we support children in using the three characteristics of effective teaching and learning. These are;

(Taken from statutory framework for the EYFS 2012)

Equal Opportunities

All members of the school are treated as individuals. We aim to meet the needs of all, taking account of gender, ability, ethnicity, culture, religion, language, sexual orientation, age, special educational needs, disability, and social circumstances. All staff are aware of the need for the curriculum to reflect cultural diversity and the need to prepare pupils for life in a diverse and multi-faith society.  

Health and Safety

At the school there are clear procedures for assessing risk (see whole school risk assessment policy) which includes procedures for keeping children safe during outings and for any aspects of the environment or provision that may require a further risk assessment. In addition to this, an annual risk assessment is conducted of the EYFS (see EYFS risk assessment) and in safeguarding and child protection polices, as well as a daily Risk Assessment of the EYFS environment, there is detailed information and procedures to ensure the safety of the children. The EYFS risk assessment must be read in conjunction with other relevant whole school polices (see EYFS risk assessment)  

Transition From Home/Pre-school /Feeder settings

During the term prior to a child’s entry into the EYFS Unit, the following procedures have been put into place to ensure successful transition:

From Reception Class to Key Stage 1

During the final term in Reception, the EYFS Profile is completed for each child. The Profile provides parents and carers, staff and teachers with a well-rounded picture of a child’s knowledge, understanding and abilities, their progress against expected levels, and their readiness for Year 1. The Profile includes on-going observation, all relevant records held by the setting, discussions with parents and carers, and any other adults whom the teacher, parent or carer judges can offer a useful contribution.  

Each child’s level of development is assessed against the early learning goals. The profile indicates whether children are meeting expected levels of development, or if they are exceeding expected levels, or not yet reaching expected levels (‘emerging’). Year 1 teachers are given a copy of the Profile Report together with a short commentary on each child’s skills and abilities in relation to the three key characteristics of effective learning. This informs the dialogue between Reception and the Year 1 teacher about each child’s stage of development.

Date Adopted

Review dates

April 2015

April 2017

April 2018

Policy developed by: C. Vanson (Headteacher) April 2015

Lowick and Holy Island C. of E. First Schools

Penalty Notice

The Anti-social Behaviour Act 2003 gave new powers to designated Local Education Authority Officers, typically Education Welfare Officers, Headteachers and the Police to issue Penalty Notices to parents in the case of their child’s irregular school attendance. These powers came into force on 27th February 2004. The Education and Inspections Act 2006 made changes to the 2003 Act by extending the use of Penalty Notices to include the whereabouts of excluded pupils. These provisions came into force on the 1st September 2007. Since its inception the triggers for issuing Penalty Notices has increased, due to the safeguarding issues around children ‘missing from school’

We at Lowick and Holy Island C. of E. First Schools believe that absence from school, for whatever reason, is detrimental to a child’s long term life opportunities, so should be avoided if at all possible. Reducing absence from school is a key priority, both Nationally and locally, as missing school damages pupil progress, attainment levels, disrupts school routines and can leave children at risk to anti – social behaviour, youth crime and possible exploitation (Safeguarding issues).

What is a Penalty Notice?

Penalty notices are fines that can be issued by a Local Authority (LA) or school to parents. An unauthorised absence is deemed to be;

When a pupil has an unauthorised absence of 10 sessions (5 days) or more, in any term time (where no acceptable reason has been given for the absence) or if the child persistently arrives late to school, after the close of Registration.

Parents will receive a written warning (by post to their home) of a Notice being issued, which will tell them the extent of the child’s absences, and give the parent 15 school days to effect an improvement. There is no limit to the number of formal warnings which can be issued.

When is a Penalty Notice appropriate?

  • Parents of a registered pupil whose child fails to attend school regularly are committing an offence under section 444 (1) Education Act 1996. A penalty notice for irregular attendance can be issued where the parent is capable of but unwilling to secure an improvement in their child’s school attendance.
  • Where a parent fails, without a reasonable excuse, to ensure that their excluded child is not present in a public place during school hours in the first five days of any exclusion, then s/he is committing an offence under section 103 of the Education and Inspections Act 2006.

The notice will state the fine payable and the timescales for doing so (if paid within 21 days £60/child or £120/child if paid within 28 days). All payments are made to the LA. Failure to pay a Penalty Notice may result in prosecution.

Parents may also receive a Penalty Notice without a warning letter for the offence of failing to secure regular school attendance under the following circumstances;

  • Holidays taken in term time.
  • As part of the ‘fast track’ system to improve attendance. Ofsted state that a child should have an attendance of 95% or higher. If it falls below this level then it is deemed to be a ‘Safeguarding issue’.
  • Inappropriate parentally condoned absence e.g. knowingly keeping the child off school for convenience, family events, tiredness or perceived ‘illness’.
  • Child’s failure to return to school following a fixed term exclusion.
  • Child is stopped on a truancy sweep.
  • Persistent late arrival at school (after the Register is closed).

What are the advantages?

The benefits for both the LA and parents are:

  • The LA can save some of the time and money that they spend on prosecuting parents. Savings could be considerable depending on local circumstances.
  • Parents who accept (i.e. pay) the penalty will not get a criminal record for that offence.

Penalty Notices provide a much quicker, cheaper and more effective way of sanctioning parents who need to focus on their responsibilities for their children’s education.

Therefore Penalty Notices provide an alternative to prosecution and enable parents to discharge potential liability for conviction for an offence by paying the penalty.

What happens if a Penalty Notice is unpaid?

If a Penalty Notice is unpaid after 28 days and it is not withdrawn [see specific grounds details in the Education (Penalty Notices) Regulations (England) 2007] then the LA must prosecute the parent. Prosecution will be for the original offence of non – attendance/failing to ensure that an excluded pupil is not in a public place, and not for non-payment of the penalty. The court can impose a fine of up to £2,500 and/or a range of other measures, (depending upon the circumstances of the offence, such as:

  • Parenting Order
  • School Attendance Order (see below for additional information)
  • Community Sentences
  • jail sentence of up to 3 months

(A School Attendance Order is issued if the LA believes that the child isn’t getting an education. The parent has 15 days to provide evidence that they have registered the child with a school or that they are going to Home Educate).

Additional Information

  • School Attendance and Absence

Useful advice to parents;

  • Send/bring your child to school on time every day.
  • If your child is unwell, contact the school on the first day of absence and return your child to school as soon as possible.
  • Make sure your child knows you do not approve of them missing school.
  • Take holidays only during school holidays.
  • Make sure your child goes to school with the correct uniform and equipment.

Date Updated

Position

Signature

April 2015

   

Reviewed: Annually

Lowick and Holy Island C. of E. First Schools

Curriculum Policy

Then I heard the Lord asking, "Whom should I send as a messenger to this people?

Who will go for us?" I said, "Here I am. Send me."

Isaiah 6:8

Introduction

At Lowick and Holy Island C. of E. First Schools (to known as the school for the purpose of this document) we believe that the curriculum is a powerful tool that promotes a love of learning and willingness to explore, and the time to have fun. We are proud to use the National Curriculum as a starting point for a wide and varied learning experience for our children. The curriculum is all the planned activities that we organise in order to promote learning and personal growth and development. It includes not only the formal requirements of the National Curriculum, but also the range of extra-curricular activities that the school organises in order to enrich the experience of the children.  

It also includes the ‘hidden curriculum’, or what the children learn from the way they are treated and expected to behave. We aim to teach children how to grow into positive, responsible people, who can work and co-operate with others while developing knowledge and skills, so that they achieve their true potential.  

We enrich it by our strong ethos based on respect for ourselves and others, equality and a sense of wonder at the world we live in. We are committed to developing the whole child. Our children will have the opportunity to be creative, to be physically active and to be academically challenged. Children are offered a very wide range of experiences to extend their understanding of themselves and the world in which they live. Skills, attitudes and values would be developed to prepare the children for the next stage of learning (‘Middle School ready’ and ‘High School ready’), and enable them to be successful in the community.

The National Curriculum in England is currently in a process of full transition. At the school we are currently following the timetable for transition, between the National Curriculum (2000) and the National Curriculum (2014), as set out by the Department of Education.

From September 2014 children in Year 3 and Year 4 will follow and be taught programmes of study from the 2014 National Curriculum. Children in Year 2 will still follow and be taught programmes of study in English, Mathematics and Science from National Curriculum (2000) until the end of the academic year 2015. From September 2015 all Year groups will follow and be taught programmes of study from the National Curriculum 2014.

We are continually reviewing and improving the curriculum we offer to our children. The curriculum at the school is evolving according to the needs of our children and to the aspirations of the staff and community.

Values

We value the way in which all children are unique, and our curriculum promotes respect for the views of each individual child, as well as for people of all cultures. We value the spiritual and moral development of each person, as well as their intellectual and physical growth.

We value the importance of each person in our community. We organise our curriculum so that we promote co-operation and understanding between all members of our community. We use the community to enrich the curriculum.

We value the rights enjoyed by each person in our society. We respect each child in our school for who they are, and we treat them with fairness and honesty. We aim to enable each person to be successful, and we provide equal opportunities for all the children in our school.

We value our environment, and we aim, through our curriculum, to teach respect for our world, and how we should care for it for future generations, as well as our own.

We value parents and work in partnership with them to enrich the curriculum. Parents are informed about the curriculum through newsletters, open days, homework and curriculum workshops, and are positively encouraged to become involved.      

Aims and Objectives

The aims of our school curriculum are:

Organisation and Planning

We plan our curriculum in three phases. We agree a long-term plan for the whole school and each key stage. This indicates what topics are to be taught in each term.      

With our medium-term plans, we give clear guidance on the objectives and teaching strategies that we use when teaching each topic. We take our medium-term planning directly from the 2014 National Curriculum guidance documents.  

Our short-term plans are those that our teachers write on a weekly basis.

We have adopted an inter-disciplinary/cross-curricular approach to curriculum planning, teaching and learning, using the ‘Mantle of the Expert’ as a vehicle for teaching. The Mantle of the Expert is used to develop a curriculum that is exciting for the children and provides context and coherence between content, skills and the development of critical thinking skills. It also provides an opportunity to harness the interests of our children, building in motivation and deeper immersive learning. The most effective learning takes place when there is considerable emphasis on active involvement, opportunities to talk both imaginatively, expressively and to explain and clarify thinking. Connections across subjects are integral to curriculum design.

We typically plan to complete a ‘Mantle’ one per term, on an appropriate and engaging subject. The theme may incorporate history, geography, music, science, the arts, English and Maths, as well as the development of responsible citizenship, but will have a strong emphasis on the development of Key Skills.

Our intended outcome for all children is that they develop into successful learners who can work both independently and cooperatively as a group, who can collect and analyse information, understand and accept different perspectives, and interpret and evaluate outcomes. We plan the curriculum carefully, so that there is coherence and full coverage of all aspects of the National Curriculum and Early Learning Goals, and there is planned progression in all curriculum areas.

Visits are planned to enhance the taught curriculum and are designed to engage the children’s interest and imagination, as well as deepen their understanding of the ‘learning’. These may involve visits to museums, galleries, historical sites, areas of geographical interest, the theatre or to special sports activity days.

For a breakdown by subject see Appendix 1

For a breakdown on Homework see Appendix 2

Children with Special Needs

The curriculum in our school is designed to provide access and opportunity for all children who attend the school. If we think it necessary to adapt the curriculum to meet the needs of individual children, then we do so only after the parents of the child have been consulted.

If a child has a special need, our school does all it can to meet their individual needs, through Inclusion. We comply with the requirements set out in the SEN Code of Practice (July 2014) in providing for children with special needs. If a child displays signs of having special needs, his/her teacher makes an assessment of this need. In most instances the teacher is able to provide resources and educational opportunities which meet the child’s needs within the normal class organisation. If a child’s need is more severe, we will refer the child to the LIST Team for assessment/additional input, which may lead to ‘top up’ funding and a statement of special needs. We provide additional resources and support for children with special needs.  

The Early Years and Foundation Stage

See EYFS Policy

The curriculum that we teach in the EYFS Unit meets the requirements set out in the revised National Curriculum at Foundation Stage. Our curriculum planning focuses on the six areas of learning: personal, social and emotional development; communication – language and literacy; mathematical development; knowledge and understanding of the world; physical development and creative development.

Our school fully supports the principle that young children learn through play, and by engaging in well-planned structured activities. Teaching in the EYFS Unit builds on the experiences of the children in their home setting.

During the children’s first term in school, their teacher begins to assess each child.   This assessment forms an important part of the future curriculum planning for each child. We are well aware that all children need the support of parents and teachers to make good progress in school. We strive to build positive links with the parents of each child by having a carefully planned induction process including home visits (if required). This relationship is nurtured throughout their time in Foundation Stage and onto KS1.  

Key Skills

The following skills have been deemed ‘key skills’ in the revised National Curriculum:

We strive to develop these skills across the curriculum.

Extra-Curricular Activities

We are committed to developing the whole child. We extend the curriculum by offering extra-curricular activities, including: Multi – skills, Football, Archery, Fencing, Cricket, Gardening, Computers, Forest School.

The Role of the Subject Leader

The role of the subject leader is to:

It is the role of each subject leader to keep up to date with developments in their subject, at both national and local level. They review the way the subject is taught in the school and plan for improvement. This development planning links to whole-school objectives. Each subject leader reviews the curriculum plans for their subject, ensures that there is full coverage of the National Curriculum and that progression is planned into schemes of work.

Monitoring and Review

The governing body is responsible for monitoring the way the school curriculum is implemented. The governors liaise with the Headteacher and subject leaders and monitor the way the school teaches subjects through governor visits to school.

The Headteacher is responsible for the day to day organisation of the curriculum. The Headteacher monitors the curriculum through planning, classroom observation, work scrutiny, data analysis and liaising with the Curriculum Co-ordinators.  

The Governing Body will review this policy bi-annually and update, modify or amend it as it considers necessary to ensure the policy meets the needs of Lowick and Holy Island C. of E. First Schools

Date Adopted

Review Dates

April 2015

April 2017

April 2019

  

Policy Developed by: C. Vanson (Headteacher) April 2015

Appendix 1

English

The school benefits from the outstanding policy and practice that has been established at the school over many years, in regard to English attainment and achievement.

All children are provided with access to inspiring, quality texts, to promote a love of reading and build children’s confidence as readers. Children become experienced in exploring a rich variety of text types, including visual texts. We support children to develop their skills in decoding words where necessary, and in understanding texts at a literal level, Interpreting implied meaning, understanding how texts are organised, discussing authors’ use of language, identifying the effect on the reader and making links between texts and real life, including historical context.

Teachers and support staff work together to provide opportunities for children to work on all aspects of reading including whole class discussions and debates, paired and group work, written responses to texts (e.g. writing in role as a character), cross-curricular work, and use of film and imagery. Children are encouraged to think critically about texts and become discerning and analytical readers.

Daily reading in Tutor Group supports readers at all levels and stages of reading development, it is a key component of the teaching day. This allows for high ability readers to engage in texts that make increasing demands on comprehension, inference and links to other texts and authors. It also supports early/emergent readers at lower levels to engage in differentiated materials and age appropriate levels and allows for active teaching of reading objectives. We use the Oxford reading Tree as the scaffold for reading, supported by other schemes, phonics is taught using ‘Jolly Phonics.’

Computing is integrated into literacy teaching, both as a highly engaging teaching tool, (using key resources such as The Literacy Shed), and as an expected outcome – published writing for a range of audiences in school and other platforms.

We seek to turn pupils into writers who are clear communicators who are also creative, imaginative and inspired. To support children in moving towards independent writing we provide a wide range of activities including: Immersion in text types, use of film and imagery, modelled, shared and guided writing, peer editing and discussion. We use literacy scaffolds and supports for less able pupils, and make full use of success criteria that reflect high expectations of written and spoken outcomes. Explicit punctuation and grammar learning objectives are integrated into schemes of work as recommended by leading Literacy Advisers such as The Literacy Tree and the Centre for Literacy in Primary Education.

Drama

We use the benefits of drama as a standalone subject, as well as a key tool in developing oracy, vocabulary development, building confidence and self- esteem, and as an essential tool in developing imaginative, expressive, and persuasive spoken and written language.

Imaginative role play is fundamental to developing the whole child, not just in Early Years and KS1 education, but also as they children develop, and our curriculum provides opportunities to perform to wider audiences through Collective Worship, public performances and events around key Christian festivals. As well as using the key tools of ‘hot seating’, and ‘response in role’ in literacy lessons to aid the development of speaking and listening, reading and writing skills, children get increasing opportunities to perform as they progress through the school.

English Programmes of Study:

https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-curriculum-in-england-englishprogrammes-of-study  

Mathematics

The importance of building step by step on mathematical understanding and skills development cannot be over emphasised. From the start children have a systematic programme of mathematics, using practical and applied resources to ensure that place value, the four number operations and the understanding of fractional parts are fully understood. There is a strong focus on the value of number (the one-ness of one), in addition to hands on practical investigations into the number system and patterns within the number system.

Activities are designed to develop deeper thinking, reinforcing the initial building blocks for mathematical thinking, reasoning and problem solving. We aim to develop a wide mathematical vocabulary and range of mental models and images that are built upon to develop concrete strategies of calculations (see Calculation Policy).

From the start, children are taught in differentiated groups and sets, to allow further consolidation for some, and for greater speed and breadth of delivery at the upper end of attainment. The approach taken by the schools is used to meet the diverse pupil body at the school.

Mathematics Programmes of Study:

https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-curriculum-in-england-mathematicsprogrammes-of-study  

Science

The curriculum is designed to develop a scientific approach to the subject matter from the earliest start, with an emphasis on enquiry, developing hypotheses, investigating variables and using mathematical and scientific vocabulary. Exploration and collection of data, through effective integration of appropriate ICT, is fundamental to instilling scientific approaches to learning. There is a strong emphasis on the practical to engage and enthuse.

The model of ‘Science Themes’ linked to the ‘Mantle’ that run for a term allow for specific science focuses: during these weeks there is a particular whole school scientific focus, culminating in exhibitions and presentations on the learning that has taken place.  

Science Programmes of Study:

https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-curriculum-in-england-scienceprogrammes-of-study  

Computing

We teach computing as a discrete subject and use IT to support learning across the school and across subject areas. Computer science is taught which includes writing algorithms and programming. All children at school have timetabled sessions.

The approach to the use of IT, is to develop usage in line with current educational best practice. In such a fast changing environment there are two essentials: to ensure that the teachers are confident with the use of I pads, IWBs and PCs for facilitating high educational learning experiences and outcomes, and for ensuring strong informed curriculum leadership to remain on top of how IT raises standards in the classroom. The requirement of the New National Curriculum to teach Computer Coding is delivered through the Computing co-ordinator and utilises expert practitioners such as, Lego Robotic hardware, which incorporates programmable features such as responses to sound, light and direction.

IT is integrated into all core lessons: the use of laptops and other hardware such as digital cameras and live action filming is as much part of the learning tools as would be pencils and pens.

Computing Programmes of Study:

https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-curriculum-in-england-computingprogrammes-of-study

Religious Education

We are two Church of England Schools (Lowick VC, Holy Island VA) and as such place an emphasis on the teaching of religious education. It permeates all aspects of the schools and underpins our distinctiveness. Our practice makes clear links about the Christian faith and world faiths to wider issues of history and settlement, and we link studies of the world faiths to relevant topics wherever appropriate. We also explore people’s right to not engage in an organised faith but still adopt a moral and ethical code of living that respects others right to a belief system.

The school follows the Diocesan of Newcastle syllabus for RE. While we recognise the right of parents to withdraw their child from RE lessons, it is anticipated that all children will take a full role in these lessons (see RE Policy).  

Worship

We have adopted the Newcastle Diocesan scheme for worship. Parents and governors are welcome to attend Worship. While school recognises the right of parents to withdraw their child from acts of worship, it is anticipated that as we are church schools, parents would wish to support us and allow their child to play an active part in the life of the school.  

Music

Music plays an important and central role to the school. Children are given opportunities throughout the year to perform in public. All children are taught singing as part of a choir or in solo/duet roles. We use the Northumberland music services to engage a peripatetic music specialist to teach Ukulele to the KS2 pupils. The school has built up a large library of musical instruments which are used to engage the pupils with un-tuned instruments. It is through the teaching of musical instruments that pupils are taught time signatures, notation, rhythm, beat and pulse.

The children have access to music from the Medieval period to the Modern, as well as from different cultures. This enables pupils to understand the instruments used, emotions provoked and stories that music can portray.

Evidence from The Journal of Neuroscience suggests that there are clear benefits to brain development in musical education even into older adulthood: more musical training leads to faster brain responses to sound and speech, and there are other benefits to musical provision delivered by subject specialists, including impact upon mathematical attainment and strengthening of memory.

Music Programmes of Study:

https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-curriculum-in-england-musicprogrammes-of-study

Physical Education

There is a considerable commitment to offering a wide range of sport, dance and physical education at the School. Extensive use is made of our own specialist teacher and visiting coaches. The school has for many years employed its own specialist dance teacher (dance is taught to all pupils each week), and engaged sports coaches working to support the development of pupil and teachers’ skills. The school ensures that all of the pupils learn to swim, with weekly swimming lessons taking place at the local Leisure Centre (using the trained Leisure Centre coaches to teach swimming). In addition to swimming at the Leisure centre, we use the large sports hall. Children experience fencing, archery, curling, bocca, gymnastics, games, athletics, netball, football, hockey, rugby and cricket. Some of these sports are taught by specialist coaches from our Sports Partnership.  

We also ensure wider participation in the community by involvement in interschool sports and tournaments. Effective use has been made of the PE and Sports Grant to widen still further involvement in “hard to reach” pupils.

Outdoor and Adventurous Activities form part of the delivered PE curriculum. This involves a three day residential visit to Whithaugh Park for the KS2 pupils, problem-solving or team-building activities in the school grounds as well as formal activities such as orienteering. .

PE Programmes of Study:

https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-curriculum-in-england-physicaleducation-programmes-of-study

Humanities: History and Geography

History and Geography are taught using the ‘Mantle of the Expert’, integrating the key areas of learning into powerful topics. We believe that the best learning takes place when meaningful and integrated links are made between history and geography and, where appropriate: global education and citizenship encompassing spiritual, cultural, social and moral education.

A key component of the ‘Mantle of the Expert’ approach is the ‘Big Themes’ and the ‘Big Questions’ that can be examined throughout the children’s education, using more complex subject matter and approaches to learning as the children progress. An example of a Mantle is ‘Time Detectives’ with a big question of “Why did farming and settlement change over time?” This is then examined from the Stone Age to the Vikings, with the geographical location of the Romans, Anglo - Saxons and Vikings, as well as land formation, land use and location factors for settlements.

Therefore the ‘Mantle’ may have a history, geography or RE ‘driver’. So a topic might focus more on geographical learning whilst being contextualised within a historical period. An example of this might be a main study of the geographical features of Greece, but would include aspects of the Ancient Greeks.

Humanities Programmes of Study:

https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-curriculum-in-england-geographyprogrammes-of-study

https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-curriculum-in-england-historyprogrammes-of-study

Philosophy for Children

We adopt P4C teaching approaches led by Sapere (Society for Advancing Philosophical Enquiry and Reflection in Education and ensure that staff have attended training to allow them to use the excellent methodologies as part of their teaching practice especially in links to the Humanities.

P4C develops children’s thinking skills, their ability to form an argument or adopt a different viewpoint, it encourages expression of complex issues with an expectation that opinions need to be justified and supported, and emphasises critical reflection. The school considers it to be a vital facilitating teaching tool across the curriculum.

Art and Design Technology

We value the place of Art and Design Technology in the busy curriculum, both for their own unique subject benefits, but also as a way of understanding the world in which the children live both past and present. The visual arts provide a window into other times and cultures and allows children to explore their own emotions and identity. A wide range of skills and techniques are covered. Children have the opportunity to work with a variety of materials and cover areas such as; drawing, painting, photography, printing, ceramics, sewing, weaving and construction activities.  

Design Technology allows children to work from an initial brief that involves solving a problem, requires them to exercise collaborative working practices and overcome difficulties, thus building resilience.

Like the approach to other curriculum subjects, we immerse ourselves in both the local and wider community of artistic provision. Active use is made of the local environment for sketching and as a stimulus for art. Visits to galleries in both Edinburgh and Newcastle are undertaken on planned basis.    

Art and Design Technology Programmes of Study:

https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-curriculum-in-england-art-and-designprogrammes-of-study

Modern Foreign Languages: Spanish

We focus on Spanish, building on the knowledge and understanding of the children as they progress through the school.

We ensure that teaching is fun, and engaging with an emphasis on spoken language skills, music, movement and role play. The children are provided with a “language portfolio” which accompanies them through the school, charting their progress and development. We use a variety of rich resources, including online curriculum schemes.

MFL Syllabus Programmes of Study:

https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-curriculum-in-england-languagesprogammes-of-study

PHSE

We view Personal, Health and Social Education (PHSE) as an important aspect to a balanced curriculum. We believe that children need to learn how to manage relationships in order that they can become respectful and therefore productive. This will support the development of the curriculum in general and individuals in particular. We use the SEAL programme to help us deliver the social aspects of PHSE.

Sex Education

Although no formal sex education is given, in the study of the natural world, the children encounter growth and development. The governors maintain a Sex and Relationship policy which is available from the school on request.  

Appendix 2

Use of Homework to support the school curriculum

Aims

  • To provide homework that is relevant meaningful and purposeful – which is not “for the sake of it
  • To foster a love of reading and wider learning
  • To provide homework when necessary that consolidates or encourages practice of new skills
  • To develop a sense of responsibility and ownership towards work completion
  • To encourage the development of independent thought and the application of research tools
  • To increase our home school partnership through shared understanding of work covered in school
  • To prepare our eldest children for secondary school through the setting of more frequent and regular homework tasks.

Reading Homework

In every Year Group we expect children to “read” at home on a daily basis. The reading Challenge has been introduced to promote pupil and parental engagement.

We know that the key contributor to children’s progress and achievement both academically and personally, is reading. Reading introduces children to new ideas, and experiences, and develops their ability to understand themselves, as well as the world in which they live. In addition, reading exposes them to vocabulary, variety of sentence construction, alternative written styles and importantly the ‘look’ of words. A potential significant contributory factor to good spelling retention is frequent sustained reading.

We expect parents to complete a Reading Record at home. These provide an opportunity for children and the parents to engage actively with the reading book, and produce a written response. It might include comments on reading ability or deeper thinking such as imagine another scene or location that would link to the book, it might be a selection of new vocabulary from the book, a book review or a commentary on a writer’s style.

At the beginning of each academic year, every child is provided with a Reading Record. All books read as part of the Reading Record form a valuable record throughout the year of the range of books read. Teachers add to the Reading Record when they hear a child read during Tutor group. This helps to strengthen links between home and school.

Spelling Homework

Dependent upon the age and stage of the child, we teach common letter patterns, spelling rules and, as the children progress, focus increasingly on the derivation of words including common prefixes and suffixes. The school complies with the requirements of The New National Curriculum Spelling lists and also uses Support for Spelling Second edition 2009 Ref: 01109-2009PDF-EN-01 published by DCSF.

Parents and carers are kept informed regarding the spelling or word focus during the half term. We assess learning and application of these spelling patterns and rules through ongoing assessment and children’s written work. We will not have a weekly spelling “tests” of set spellings, but will assess spellings including spelling patterns on an ad hoc basis.

Handwriting

Children are expected to write in a fluent cursive style, which aids speed, and helps retain spelling patterns. We ask that children practice their handwriting as part of learning their spellings. We will from time to time ask children to practise handwriting activities at home to support class work. Written

Homework

Teachers will, when appropriate, set age appropriate written tasks for completion at home, related to text types covered in class e.g. persuasive writing, descriptive writing.

Research, Mini –Topics and Independent Projects

It is hugely important for “children to plan, research and critically evaluate” and “to take responsibility for their own learning” as part of their development as independent thinkers and learners.

In each Year Group there are homework tasks related to developing and fostering these skills –such as researching an area related to a topic covered in class, or producing a piece of independently produced work. Dependent on the Year Group, there will be particular direction regarding the structure of the homework project.

Mathematics Homework

At the earliest stages, we would encourage children and parents to practise number knowledge and apply learning to home such as shopping, cooking, telling the time, measurement, and other domestic situations.

We would expect every child to learn tables 2-12 progressively. We expect the majority of children to have complete recall of all the related number facts of 2 5 and 10 and 3 and 6 by end of Year 3. We would expect knowledge of 3, 4, 6, and 7, 8, 9 11 and 12 by end of Year 4. We will test tables on a “when ready” basis and children’s mastery of each set of tables during the weekly Mental Maths test.

Subcategories

 
We were awarded Outstanding in both schools Ofsted Inspections  ARTSMARK: We have achived a GOLD award for our arts in school. "Artsmark provides a benchmark for arts provision that encourages schools to consider the opportunities they offer in art, dance, drama and music.  ICTMark Award  HealthandWellbeingLogo s   Active 08  Financial Management in Schools  Naace Feature School  3rd-Millennium-Learning-Logo-v5Eco Schools Bronze Award s

All content ©Holy Island and Lowick CofE First Schools 2016. E Login
 
Joomla Template: from JoomlaShack