Lowick and Holy Island C. of E. First Schools
English Policy
RATIONALE
The National Curriculum (2014) clearly states that teaching the English language is an essential, if not the most essential role of a First school.
The study of English develops children’s ability to listen, speak, read and write for a wide range of purposes, including the communication of their ideas, views and feelings. Children are enabled to express themselves creatively and imaginatively as they become enthusiastic and critical readers of stories, poetry and drama, as well as of nonfiction and media texts. Children gain an understanding of how language works by looking at its patterns, structures and origins. Children use their knowledge, skills and understanding in speaking and writing across a range of different situations.
‘Teachers should develop pupil’s spoken language, reading, writing and vocabulary as integral aspects of the teaching of every subject. English is both a subject in its own right and the medium for teaching; for pupils, understanding the language provides access to the whole curriculum. Fluency in the English language is an essential foundation for success in all subjects.’
(P10 National Curriculum)
We are an inclusive school; we set high expectations and recognise the importance of accurate and regular assessment in order to support individuals at every part of their learning journey and in whatever circumstances. We use one to one support, small groups and crossphase work to help with this. We plan teaching opportunities to help those for whom English is an additional language and those with disabilities outlined in the SEN code of practice. We agree with the statement of the National Curriculum, that
‘pupils…who do not learn to speak, read and write fluently and confidently are effectively disenfranchised’
(p13 National Curriculum)
AIMS (These aims are also in conjunction with the new National Curriculum 2014 p.3)
PLANNING & PROGRESSION
Long term overviews can be found online for Key Stages One and Two.
Pupils are taught in year groups and mixed Key Stage Classes and planning shows differentiation by age and ability.
Medium term (half –termly) planning is stored centrally.
Schemes of work for phonics and grammar and spelling are used to ensure developmental learning building on prior knowledge.
Short term planning is flexible allowing for assessment for learning after each session/ group of sessions.
Pupils may be streamed by ability for some sessions/ types of homework/ support.
Pupils entitled to Pupil Premium funding will be given additional English support which is tracked and monitored termly.
Pupils with EAL will be given additional English support which is tracked and monitored termly.
(We aim to incorporate the statutory requirements of the new Curriculum 2014)
Spoken Language:
The National Curriculum states that pupils should be
‘taught to speak clearly and convey ideas confidently in Standard English’
(p10 National Curriculum)
They should:
We encourage our pupils to speak clearly and confidently and articulate their views and opinions. We teach that children need to express themselves orally in an appropriate way, matching their style and response to audience and purpose. Listening and responding to literature, giving and receiving instructions. They develop the skills of participating effectively in group discussions.
Ways in which we support this include:
We further incorporate:
Foundation Stage: Small group work, interventions such as Talk Boost, Letters & Sounds, Role play, stories and songs, listening stations, voice recording, show and tell boxes, iPad, Circle time, puppets, questioning, Tapestry.
Key Stage One: Role play related to texts, performance poetry, talking partners, drama conventions, rhymes and songs, class and whole school plays and assemblies.
Key Stage Two: As above plus, Presentations, group tasks, collaborative learning, tag storytelling.
Reading:
The National Curriculum states that pupils should be taught to read fluently, understand extended prose and be encouraged to read for pleasure. Reading is singled out as of extreme importance since through it
‘pupils have a chance to develop culturally, emotionally, intellectually, socially and spiritually’
Reading allows pupils to ‘acquire knowledge’ and to ‘build on what they already know’
(p13 National Curriculum).
Schools are expected to have library facilities and support and encourage reading at home.
The 2014 Curriculum divides reading skills into two dimensions:
We recognise that both these elements are essential to success and we support the acquisition of both sets of skills through various methods. We recognise that these areas are clearly linked to the other aspects of English learning: speaking and listening, writing, grammar and vocabulary. We also understand that reading is a developmental process and part of lifelong learning and we encourage and praise children at every stage of it.
Our aims and connected provision:
We further incorporate:
The Reading Challenge with inbuilt rewards leading to celebration of success.
Foundation Stage: reading book sessions, guided reading, Letters and Sounds, Jolly phonics, name recognition, cosy corner, electronic books, iPad, role play corner, tape recorder with books, poems and songs.
Key Stage One: guided reading in differentiated groups, individual support, real books and schemes, nonfiction and learning how to use these books, comprehension.
Key Stage Two: Whole class texts including a wide variety of activities to create reading stamina, classic texts across a range of genres, Book club and library.
Writing:
The National Curriculum states that pupils should:
The 2014 Curriculum divides writing skills into two dimensions:
We recognise that both these elements are essential to success and we support the acquisition of both sets of skills through various methods. We recognise that these areas are clearly linked to the other aspects of English learning: speaking and listening, reading, grammar and vocabulary.
Our aims and connected provision:
We further incorporate:
Foundation Stage: name writing skills development, sensory development skills for gross and fine motor development through playdough, theraputty and marbles, brushes, signing in books, variety of writing tools, whiteboards and pens, smart board games, iPad, outdoor learning skills for e.g. chalks, paint, computers.
Key Stage One: range of genres, diaries, exciting text related activities, traditional stories, recounts, information texts, authors, spelling tests, grammar and punctuation, handwriting , iPad.
Key Stage Two: Big writing assessment tasks, descriptive writing through topics, i.e. ‘Bronze Age Adventure’, narrative and descriptive writing, newspaper reports related to topics, ongoing spellings, punctuation and grammar integrated into topics, weekly spellings and intervention.
Vocabulary Development:
The National Curriculum makes clear that learning vocabulary is key to
‘learning and progress across the whole curriculum’
(p11 National Curriculum)
since it allows pupils to access a wider range of words when writing and for them to understand and comprehend texts efficiently.
Vocabulary teaching needs to be:
Our aims and connected provision:
We encourage our pupils to have a wide and growing vocabulary in a number of ways, these include:
ASSESSMENT
(Please see marking/assessment policies)
ENGLISH & INCLUSION
At our school we teach English to all children, whatever their ability and individual needs. English forms part of the school curriculum policy to provide a broad and balanced education to all children. Through our English teaching we provide learning opportunities that enable all pupils to make good progress. We strive hard to meet the needs of those pupils with special educational needs, those with disabilities, those with special gifts and talents, and those learning English as an additional language, and we take all reasonable steps to achieve this. For further details see separate policies: Special Educational Needs.
Date Adopted 
Review dates 

April 2015 
April 2018 
April 2019 
Policy developed by: C. Vanson (Headteacher) April 2015
Lowick and Holy Island C. of E. First Schools
Calculation Policy
INTRODUCTION
This policy has been written in line with the programmes of study taken from the revised National Curriculum for Mathematics (2014). It has been devised to meet the requirements for teaching and learning of mathematics and is designed to ensure pupils have a consistent and smooth progression of learning in calculations across the whole school. The content is set out in staged blocks under the following headings: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Statements taken directly from the programmes of study are listed at the beginning of each section.
Age and stage expectations  This policy is organised into age stage expectations as set out in the new National Curriculum 2014, however it is vital that pupils are taught according to the stage that they are currently working at, being moved onto the next level as soon as they are ready, or working at a lower stage until they are secure enough to move on. Our school’s mixed age classes supports such teaching.
Providing a context for calculation  It is important that any type of calculation is based within a real life context or problem solving approach, this enables children to understand the purpose of calculation, and to help them to recognise when to use certain operations and methods when faced with problems. In addition to this, where ever possible, links are made with our thematic/cross curricular approach (Mantle of the Expert). Children need to be taught and encouraged to use the following processes in deciding an approach they will take to a calculation to ensure they select the most appropriate method for the numbers involved:
 Can I do it in my head using a mental strategy?
 Could I use some jottings to help me?
 Should I use a written method to work this out?
AIMS OF THE POLICY
 To ensure consistency and progression in our approach to calculation
 To ensure that children develop an efficient, reliable, formal written method of calculation for all operations
 To ensure that children can use these methods accurately with confidence and understanding
HOW TO USE THIS POLICY
 Use the policy as the basis of your planning but ensure you use previous or following years’ guidance to allow for personalised learning
 Always use Assessment for Learning to identify suitable next steps in calculation for groups of children
 If, at any time, children are making significant errors, return to the previous stage in calculation
 Cross reference with mental maths for guidance on key facts, key vocabulary and mental methods
 Always use suitable resources, models and images to support children’s understanding of calculation and place value, as appropriate
 Encourage children to make sensible choices about the methods they use when solving problems
EYFS
Early Learning in number and calculation follows the ‘Development Matters’ and towards the ‘Early Years Outcomes’ EYFS documents. This calculation policy is designed to build on progressively from the content and methods established in the Early Years Foundation Stage.
Addition – Early Stages (EYFS)
Children will engage in a wide variety of songs and rhymes, games and activities. They will begin to relate addition to combining two groups of objects, first by counting all and then by counting on from the largest number.
They will find one more than a given number.
In practical activities and through discussion they will begin to use the vocabulary involved in addition.
‘You have five apples and I have three apples. How many apples altogether?’
Subtraction – Early Stages (EYFS)
Children will engage in a variety of counting songs and rhymes and practical activities. In practical activities and through discussion they will begin to use the vocabulary associated with subtraction.
They will find one less than a given number.
They will begin to relate subtraction to ‘taking away’ using objects to count ‘how many are left’ after some have been taken away.
6 – 2 = 4 ‘Take two apples away. How many are left?’
Children will begin to count back from a given number.
Multiplication – Early Stages (EYFS)
Children will engage in a wide variety of songs and rhymes, games and activities. In practical activities and through discussion they will begin to solve problems involving doubling. ‘Three apples for you and three apples for me. How many apples altogether?’
Division – Early Stages (EYFS)
Children will engage in a wide variety of songs and rhymes, games and activities. In practical activities and through discussion they will begin to solve problems involving halving and sharing. Share the apples between two people. ‘Half of the apples for you and half of the apples for me.’
Calculation Guidelines for Early Years Foundation Stage 

ADDITION 
SUBTRACTION 
MULTIPLICATION 
DIVISION 
Children begin to record in the context of play or practical activities and problems. 

Begin to relate addition to combining two groups of objects already carried out. Solve simple word problems using their fingers Can find one more to ten. Higher Ability/ Gifted and Talented children progress to using a number line. They jump forwards along the number line using finger. 
Begin to relate subtraction to ‘taking away’ activities already carried out are left. Can find one less to ten. Higher Ability/ Gifted and Talented Progression: Counting backwards along a number line using finger. 
Real life contexts and use of practical equipment to count in repeated groups Also chanting in 2s, 5s and 10s. 
Share objects into equal groups Use related vocabulary Activities might include:
Count in twos, tens How many times? How many are left/left over? Group Answer Right, wrong What could we try next? How did you work it out? Share out Half, halve 
ADDITION
The aim is that children use mental methods when appropriate, but for calculations that they cannot do in their heads they use an efficient written method accurately and with confidence. Children are entitled to be taught, and to acquire, secure mental methods of calculation, and one efficient written method of calculation for addition, which they know they can rely on when mental methods are not appropriate. These notes show the stages in building up to using an efficient written method for addition of whole numbers by the end of Year 4. It is however essential, that appropriate mental strategies are taught alongside the written methods in this calculation policy. Note: Before children move onto the next stage in written calculation it is important that their skills are broadened through their use and application in a range of contexts (including money, time and other measures).
Addition  Stage One
Key vocabulary: add, more, plus, and, make, altogether, total, equal to, equals, double, most, count on, number line. Key skills for addition at Stage 1:
 Read and write numbers to 100 in numerals, incl. 1—20 in words
 Recall bonds to 10 and 20, and addition facts within 20
 Count to and across 100
 Count in multiples of 1 2, 5 and 10
 Solve simple 1step problems involving addition, using objects, number lines and pictorial representations
Children should be able to  Add with numbers up to 20. Use number lines and number tracks to add by counting on in ones, to start with largest number and count on. Children should: Have access to a wide range of counting equipment, everyday objects, number tracks and number lines and be shown numbers in different contexts. Read and write the addition (+) and equals (=) signs within number sentences. Interpret addition number sentences and solving mixing box problems using concrete objects and number line addition to solve them: 8 + 4 = ___ __ + __ = 6 This should build on prior learning of adding by combining 2 objects.
To support understanding, pupils may physically make and carry calculation with Cuisenaire Rods, Dienes Base material or arrow cards, then compare their practical version to the written form, to help the understanding of it.
Addition  Stage Two
Key vocabulary: add, more, plus, and, make, altogether, total, equal to, equals, double, most, count on, number line, sum, tens, units, partition, addition, column, tens boundary. Key skills for addition at Stage 2:
 Add a 2digit number and units (e.g. 27 + 6)
 Add a 2digit number and tens (e.g. 23 + 40)
 Add pairs of 2digit numbers (e.g. 35 + 47)
 Add three singledigit numbers (e.g. 5 + 9 + 7)
 Show that adding can be done in any order (the commutative law)
 Recall bonds to 20 and bonds of tens to 100 (30 + 70 etc.)
 Count in steps of 2, 3 and 5 and count in tens from any number
 Understand the place value of 2digit numbers (tens and units)
 Compare and order numbers to 100 using < > and = signs
 Read and write numbers to at least 100 in numerals and words
 Solve problems with addition, using concrete objects, pictorial representations, involving numbers, quantities and measures, and applying mental and written methods
Children should be able to  Add with 2digit numbers: Developing mental fluency with addition and place value involving 2digit numbers, then establish more formal methods. As with Stage one  to support understanding, pupils may physically make and carry calculation with Cuisenaire Rods, Dienes Base material or arrow cards, then compare their practical version to the written form, to help the understanding of it.
Addition  Stage Three
Key vocabulary: add, more, plus, and, make, altogether, total, equal to, equals, double, most, count on, number line, sum, tens, units, partition, plus, addition, column, tens boundary, hundreds boundary, increase, vertical, =carry‘, expanded, compact. Key skills for addition at Stage 3:
 Read and write numbers to 1000 in numerals and words
 Add 2digit numbers mentally, incl. those exceeding 100
 Add a threedigit number and units mentally (175 + 8)
 Add a threedigit number and tens mentally (249 + 50)
 Add a threedigit number and hundreds mentally (381 + 400)
 Estimate answers to calculations, using inverse to check answers
 Solve problems, including missing number problems, using number facts, place value, and more complex addition
 Recognise place value of each digit in 3digit numbers (hundreds, tens, units.)
 Continue to practise a wide range of mental addition strategies, ie. Number bonds, adding the nearest multiple of 10, 100, 100 and adjusting, using near doubles, partitioning and recombining
Children should be able to  Add numbers with up to 3digits, use the formal written method with the carry going into the next column. Children need to recognise the value of the hundreds, tens and units without recording the partitioning. Pupils need to be able to add in columns. Introduce the expanded column addition method for children who are struggling with understanding of formal written method.
Stage One 
Stage Two 
Stage Three 
+ = signs and missing numbers Children need to understand the concept of equality before using the ‘=’ sign. Calculations should be written either side of the equality sign so that the sign is not just interpreted as ‘the answer’. 2 = 1+ 1 2 + 3 = 4 + 1 3 = 3 2 + 2 + 2 = 4 + 2 Missing numbers need to be placed in all possible places. 3 + 4 = = 3 + 4 3 + = 7 7 = + 4 + 4 = 7 7 = 3 + + Ñ = 7 7 = + Ñ The Number Line Children use a numbered line to count on in ones. Children use number lines and practical resources to support calculation and teachers demonstrate the use of the number line. 7+ 4 
+ = signs and missing numbers Continue using a range of equations as in Stage 1 but with appropriate, larger numbers. Extend to 14 + 5 = 10 + and 32 + + = 100 35 = 1 + + 5 Partition into tens and ones and recombine 12 + 23 = 10 + 2 + 20 + 3 = 30 + 5 = 35 Count on in tens and ones 23 + 12 = 23 + 10 + 2 = 33 + 2 = 35 The Empty Number Line: Partitioning and bridging through 10. The steps in addition often bridge through a multiple of 10 Children should be able to partition the 7 to relate adding the 2 and then the 5. 8 + 7 = 15 Add 9 or 11 by adding 10 and adjusting by 1Add 9 by adding 10 and adjusting by 135 + 9 = 44 +10
1 
+ = signs and missing numbers Continue using a range of equations as in Stage 1 and 2 but with appropriate, larger numbers. Partition into tens and ones
36 + 53 = 53 + 30 + 6 = 83 + 6 = 89 Add a near multiple of 10 to a twodigit number Secure mental methods by using a number line to model the method. Continue as in Stage 2 but with appropriate numbers
Children need to be secure adding multiples of 10 to any twodigit number including those that are not multiples of 10. 48 + 36 = 84 pencil and paper procedures 83 + 42 = 125 either or 83 80 + 3 + _42 + 40 + 2 5 120 + 5 = 125 120 125 
Addition  Stage Four
Key vocabulary: add, more, plus, and, make, altogether, total, equal to, equals, double, most, count on, number line, sum, tens, units, partition, plus, addition, column, tens’ boundary, hundreds’ boundary, increase, vertical, carry, expanded, compact, thousands, hundreds, digits, inverse. Key skills for addition at Stage 4:
 Select most appropriate method: mental, jottings or written and explain why
 Recognise the place value of each digit in a fourdigit number
 Round any number to the nearest 10, 100 or 1000
 Estimate and use inverse operations to check answers
 Solve 2step problems in context, deciding which operations and methods to use and why
 Find 1000 more or less than a given number
 Continue to practise a wide range of mental addition strategies, i.e. Number bonds, add the nearest multiple of 10, 100, 1000 and adjust, use near doubles, partitioning and recombining
 Add numbers with up to 4 digits using the formal written method of column addition
 Solve 2step problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why
 Estimate and use inverse operations to check answers to a calculation
Children should be able to  Add numbers with up to 4 digits. Move from expanded addition to the compact column method, adding units first, and ‘carrying’ numbers onto the top line in the correct column. Also include money and measures in contexts.
Addition  Stage Five
Key vocabulary: add, more, plus, and, make, altogether, total, equal to, equals, double, most, count on, number line, sum, tens, units, partition, plus, addition, column, tens’ boundary, hundreds’ boundary, increase, carry, expanded, compact, vertical, thousands, hundreds, digits, inverse & decimal places, decimal point, tenths, hundredths, thousandths. Key skills for addition at Stage5:
 Add numbers mentally with increasingly large numbers, using and practising a range of mental strategies i.e. Add the nearest multiple of 10, 100, 100 and adjust; use near doubles, inverse, partitioning and recombining; using number bonds
 Use rounding to check answers and accuracy.
 Solve multistep problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why
 Read, write, order and compare numbers to at least 1 million and determine the value of each digit
 Round any number up to 1 000 000 to the nearest 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 and 100 000
 Add numbers with more than 4 digits using formal written method of columnar addition.
 Year 5 Add numbers with more than 4 digits including money, measures and decimals with different numbers of decimal places
Children should be able to  understand the place value of tenths and hundredths and use this to align numbers with different decimal places. Add numbers with more than 4 digits including money, measures and decimals with different numbers of decimal places.
Addition  Stage Six
Key vocabulary: add, more, plus, and, make, altogether, total, equal to, equals, double, most, count on, number line, sum, tens, units, partition, plus, addition, column, tens’ boundary, hundreds’ boundary, increase, carry, expanded, compact, vertical, thousands, hundreds, digits, inverse, decimal places, decimal point, tenths, hundredths, thousandths. Key skills for addition at Stage6:
 Perform mental calculations, including with mixed operations and large numbers, using and practising a range of mental strategies
 Solve multistep problems in context, deciding which operations and methods to use and why
 Use estimation to check answers to calculations and determine, in the context of a problem, levels of accuracy
 Read, write, order and compare numbers up to 10 million and determine the value of each digit
 Round any whole number to a required degree of accuracy
 Pupils understand how to add mentally with larger numbers and calculations of increasing complexity
Children should be able to  Add several numbers of increasing complexity. Add several numbers with different numbers of decimal places (including money and measures):
 Tenths, hundredths and thousandths should be correctly aligned, with the decimal point lined up vertically including in the answer row.
 Zeros could be added into any empty decimal places, to show there is no value to add.
 Adding several numbers with more than 4 digits.
Stage Four 
Stage Five 
Stage Six 
+ = signs and missing numbers Continue using a range of equations as in Stage 1 and 2 but with appropriate numbers. Partition into tens and ones and recombineEither partition both numbers and recombine or partition the second number only e.g. 55 + 37 = 55 + 30 + 7 = 85 + 7 = 92 Add the nearest multiple of 10, then adjust Continue as in Stage 2 and 3 but with appropriate numbers e.g. 63 + 29 is the same as 63 + 30  1 Pencil and paper procedures367 + 185 = 431 either or 367 300 + 60 + 7 +185 100 + 80 + 5 12 400 +140+12 = 552 140 400 552 leading to 367 +185 552 1 1 Extend to decimals in the context of money. 
+ = signs and missing numbers Continue using a range of equations as in Stage 1 and 2 but with appropriate numbers. Partition into hundreds, tens and ones and recombineEither partition both numbers and recombine or partition the second number only e.g. 358 + 73 = 358 + 70 + 3 = 428 + 3 = 431 Add or subtract the nearest multiple of 10 or 100, then adjust Continue as in Stage 2, 3 and 4 but with appropriate numbers e.g. 458 + 79 = is the same as 458 + 80  1 Pencil and paper procedures Extend to numbers with at least four digits 3587 + 675 = 4262 3587 + 675 4262 1 1 1 Revert to expanded methods if the children experience any difficulty. Extend to up to two places of decimals (same number of decimals places) and adding several numbers (with different numbers of digits). +54.6 127.4 1 1 
+ = signs and missing numbers Continue using a range of equations as in Stage 1 and 2 but with appropriate numbers. Partition into hundreds, tens, ones and decimal fractions and recombineEither partition both numbers and recombine or partition the second number only e.g. = 42.8 + 0.3 = 43.1 Add the nearest multiple of 10, 100 or 1000, then adjust Continue as in Stage 2, 3, 4 and 5 but with appropriate numbers including extending to adding 0.9, 1.9, 2.9 etc Pencil and paper procedures Extend to numbers with any number of digits and decimals with 1, 2 and/or 3 decimal places. 13.86 + 9.481 23.341 1 1 1 Revert to expanded methods if the children experience any difficulty. 
Calculation Guidelines for Gifted and Talented Children Working Beyond Primary Level 

Extend to decimals with up to 2 decimal places, including:
Use compensation by adding too much, and then compensating 
SUBTRACTION
The aim is that children use mental methods when appropriate, but for calculations that they cannot do in their heads they use an efficient written method accurately and with confidence. Children are entitled to be taught and to acquire secure mental methods of calculation and one efficient written method of calculation for subtraction which they know they can rely on when mental methods are not appropriate. These notes show the stages in building up to using an efficient method for subtraction of up to 5 whole numbers by the end of Stage 5.
To subtract successfully, children need to be able to: recall all addition and subtraction facts to 20; subtract multiples of 10 (such as 160 – 70) using the related subtraction fact,16 – 7, and their knowledge of place value; partition twodigit and threedigit numbers into multiples of one hundred, ten and one in different ways (e.g. partition 74 into 70 + 4 or 60 + 14). Note: It is important that children’s mental methods of calculation are practised and secured alongside their learning and use of an efficient written method for subtraction. Using and Applying  Before children move onto the next stage in written calculation it is important that their skills are broadened through their use and application in a range of contexts (including money, time and other measures).
Subtraction  Stage One
Key vocabulary: equal to, take, take away, less, minus, subtract, leaves, distance between, how many more, how many fewer / less than, most, least, count back, how many left, how much less is_? Key skills for subtraction at Stage 1:
 Given a number, say one more or one less
 Count to and over 100, forward and back, from any number
 Represent and use subtraction facts to 20 and within 20
 Subtract with onedigit and twodigit numbers to 20, including zero
 Solve onestep problems that involve addition and subtraction, using concrete objects (ie bead string, objects, cubes) and pictures, and missing number problems
 Read and write numbers from 0 to 20 in numerals and words
Children should be able to  Subtract from numbers up to 20. Children consolidate understanding of subtraction practically, showing subtraction on bead strings, using cubes etc. and in familiar contexts, and introduced to more formal recording using number. Subtract by taking away on number lines. Find the distance between two points. Mental subtraction  Children should start recalling subtraction facts up to and within 10 and 20, and should be able to subtract zero.
Subtraction  Stage Two
Key vocabulary: equal to, take, take away, less, minus, subtract, leaves, distance between, how many more, how many fewer / less than, most, least, count back , how many left, how much less is_? difference, count on, strategy, partition, tens, units Key skills for subtraction at Stage 2:
 Recognise the place value of each digit in a twodigit number
 Recall and use subtraction facts to 20 fluently, and derive and use related facts up to 100
 Subtract using concrete objects, pictorial representations, 100 squares and subtract mentally, including: a twodigit number and units, a twodigit number and tens, and two twodigit numbers
 Show that subtraction of one number from another cannot be done in any order
 Recognise and use inverse relationship between addition and subtraction, using this to check calculations and missing number problems
 Solve simple addition and subtraction problems including measures, using concrete objects, pictorial representation, and also applying their increasing knowledge of mental and written methods
 Read and write numbers to at least 100 in numerals and in words
Children should be able to  Subtract with 2digit numbers. Subtract on a number line by counting back, aiming to develop mental subtraction skills. This strategy will be used for: 2digit numbers subtracting units (by taking away / counting back) e.g. 36—7, 2digit numbers subtracting tens (by taking away / counting back) e.g. 48—30, subtracting pairs of 2digit numbers.
Subtraction  Stage Three
Key vocabulary: equal to, take, take away, less, minus, subtract, leaves, distance between, how many more, how many fewer / less than, most, least, count back , how many left, how much less is_? difference, count on, strategy, partition, tens, units, borrowing, decrease, hundreds, value, digit Key skills for subtraction at Stage 3:
 Subtract mentally a: 3digit number and units, 3digit number and tens, 3digit number and hundreds
 Estimate answers and use inverse operations to check
 Solve problems, including missing number problems
 Find 10 or 100 more or less than a given number
 Recognise the place value of each digit in a 3digit number
 Counting up differences as a mental strategy when numbers are close together or near multiples of 10
 Read and write numbers up to 1000 in numerals and words
 Practise mental subtraction strategies, such as subtracting near multiples of 10 and adjusting (e.g. subtracting 19 or 21), and select most appropriate methods to subtract, explaining why
Children should be able to  Subtract with 2 and 3digit numbers. Introduce partitioned column subtraction method. Approximating before calculating answer should be encouraged. Counting on as a mental strategy for subtraction: Continue to reinforce counting on as a strategy for closetogether numbers (e.g. 121—118), and also for numbers that are nearly multiples of 10, 100, 1000 or £s, which make it easier to count on (e.g. 10289, 131—79, or calculating change from £1 etc.). Start at the smaller number and count on in tens first, then count on in units to find the rest of the difference:
Stage One 
Stage Two 
Stage Three 

 = signs and missing numbers 7  3 = = 7  3 7  = 4 4 =  3  3 = 4 4 = 7   Ñ = 4 4 =  Ñ
I have saved 5p. The socks that I want to buy cost 11p. How much more do I need in order to buy the socks?
I have 11 toy cars. There are 5 cars too many to fit in the garage. How many cars fit in the garage? 5 Use the vocabulary related to addition and subtraction and symbols to describe and record addition and subtraction number sentences Recording by  drawing jumps on prepared lines  constructing own lines 
 = signs and missing numbers Continue using a range of equations as in Stage 1 but with appropriate numbers. Extend to 14 + 5 = 20  Find a small difference by counting up42 – 39 = 3 Subtract 9 or 11. Begin to add/subtract 19 or 2135 – 9 = 26 Use known number facts and place value to subtract(partition second number only) 37 – 12 = 37 – 10 – 2 = 27 – 2 = 25
Bridge through 10 where necessary 32  17 
 = signs and missing numbers Continue using a range of equations as in Stage 1 and 2 but with appropriate numbers. Find a small difference by counting up Continue as in Stage 2 but with appropriate numbers e.g. 102 – 97 = 5
Subtract mentally a ‘near multiple of 10’ to or from a twodigit number Continue as in Stage 2 but with appropriate numbers e.g. 78 – 49 is the same as 78 – 50 + 1
Use known number facts and place value to subtract Continue as in Year 2 but with appropriate numbers e.g.97 – 15 = 72 82 87 97 5 10 With practice, children will need to record less information and decide whether to count back or forward. It is useful to ask children whether counting up or back is the more efficient for calculations such as 57 – 12, 86 – 77 or 43 – 28. Pencil and paper proceduresComplementary addition 84 – 56 = 28 +20 +4 +4 56 60 80 84 
Subtraction  Stage Four
Key vocabulary: equal to, take, take away, less, minus, subtract, leaves, distance between, how many more, how many fewer / less than, most, least, count back, how many left, how much less is_? difference, count on, strategy, partition, tens, units, borrowing, decrease, hundreds, value, digit, inverse. Key skills for subtraction at Stage 4:
 Subtract by counting on where numbers are close together or they are near to multiples of 10, 100 etc
 Children select the most appropriate and efficient methods for given subtraction calculations
 Estimate and use inverse operations to check answers
 Solve addition and subtraction 2step problems, choosing which operations and methods to use and why
 Solve simple measure and money problems involving fractions and decimals to two decimal places
 Find 1000 more or less than a given number
 Count backwards through zero, including negative numbers
 Recognise place value of each digit in a 4digit number Round any number to the nearest 10, 100 or 1000
 Solve number and practical problems that involve the above, with increasingly large positive numbers
Children should be able to  Subtract with up to 4digit numbers Partitioned column subtraction with borrowing. (decomposition): Mental strategies: A variety of mental strategies must be taught and practised, including counting on to find the difference where numbers are closer together, or where it is easier to count on.
Subtraction  Stage Five
Key vocabulary: equal to, take, take away, less, minus, subtract, leaves, distance between, how many more, how many fewer / less than, most, least, count back, how many left, how much less is_? difference, count on, strategy, partition, tens, units, borrowing, decrease, hundreds, value, digit, inverse, tenths, hundredths, decimal point, decimal. Key skills for subtraction at Stage 5:
 Subtract numbers mentally with increasingly large numbers
 Use rounding and estimation to check answers to calculations and determine, in a range of contexts, levels of accuracy
 Solve addition and subtraction multistep problems in context, deciding which operations and methods to use and why
 Read, write, order and compare numbers to at least 1 million and determine the value of each digit
 Count forwards or backwards in steps of powers of 10 for any given number up to 1 million
 Interpret negative numbers in context, counting forwards and backwards with positive and negative integers through 0
 Round any number up to 1 million to the nearest 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 and 100 000
Children should be able to  Subtract with at least 4digit numbers including money, measures, decimals. Compact column subtraction (with borrowing.). Children who are still not secure with number facts and place value will need to remain on the partitioned column method until ready for the compact method. Subtracting with larger integers. Subtract with decimal values, including mixtures of integers and decimals, aligning the decimal point.
Subtraction  Stage Six
Key vocabulary: equal to, take, take away, less, minus, subtract, leaves, distance between, how many more, how many fewer / less than, most, least, count back , how many left, how much less is_? difference, count on, strategy, partition, tens, borrowing, decrease, hundreds, value, digit, inverse, tenths, hundredths, decimal point, decimal. Key skills for subtraction at Stage6:
 Solve addition and subtraction multistep problems in context, deciding which operations and methods to use and why
 Read, write, order and compare numbers up to 10 million and determine the value of each digit
 Round any whole number to a required degree of accuracy
 Use negative numbers in context, and calculate intervals across zero
 Children need to utilise and consider a range of mental subtraction strategies, jottings and written methods before choosing how to calculate
Children should be able to  Subtract with increasingly large and more complex numbers and decimal values. Use the compact column method to subtract more complex integers. Use the compact column method to subtract money and measures, including decimals with different numbers of decimal places. Pupils should be able to apply their knowledge of a range of mental strategies, mental recall skills, and informal and formal written methods when selecting the most appropriate method to work out subtraction problems.
Stage Four 
Stage Five 
Stage Six 
Find a small difference by counting upThis can be modelled on an empty number line (see complementary addition below). Children should be encouraged to use known number facts to reduce the number of steps. Subtract the nearest multiple of 10, then adjust. Continue as in Stage 2 and 3 but with appropriate numbers. Use known number facts and place value to subtract 92 – 25 = 67 Pencil and paper proceduresComplementary addition 754 – 86 = 668 For those children with a secure mental image of the number line they could record the jumps only:754 – 86 = 668
14 (100) 600 (700) 54 (754) 668 
Find a difference by counting upThis can be modelled on an empty number line (see complementary addition below). Subtract the nearest multiple of 10 or 100, then adjust. Continue as in Stage 2, 3 and 4 but with appropriate numbers. Use known number facts and place value to subtract Pencil and paper proceduresComplementary addition 754 – 286 = 468 OR754  286 = 468 14 (300) can be refined to 14 (300) 400 (700) 454 (754) 54 (754) 468 468 Reduce the number of steps to make the calculation more efficient. Extend to 2 places of decimals 
Find a difference by counting up
To make this method more efficient, the number of steps should be reduced to a minimum through children knowing:
Subtract the nearest multiple of 10, 100 or 1000, then adjust Continue as in Stage 2, 3, 4 and 5 but with appropriate numbers. Use known number facts and place value to subtract Pencil and paper proceduresComplementary addition 6467 – 2684 = 3783 OR 6467 – 2684 = 3783 16 (2700) can be refined to 316 (3000) 300 (3000) 3467 (6467) 3467 (6467) 3783 3783 Reduce the number of steps to make the calculation more efficient. Extend to 2 places of decimals 
Calculation Guidelines for Gifted and Talented Children Working Beyond Primary Level 
Mental methods Use compensation by subtracting too much, and then compensating Use jottings such as an empty number line to support or explain methods for adding mentally. Pencil and paper procedures (Written methods) Subtract more complicated fractions For Example: Extend to decimals with up to 2 decimal places, including:
digits
Complementary addition 
MULTIPLICATION
The aim is that children use mental methods when appropriate, but for calculations that they cannot do in their heads they use an efficient written method accurately and with confidence. Children are entitled to be taught and to acquire secure mental methods of calculation and one efficient written method of calculation for multiplication which they know they can rely on when mental methods are not appropriate.
These notes show the stages in building up to using an efficient method for by the end of Stage 4, twodigit by twodigit multiplication by the end of Stage 5, and threedigit by twodigit multiplication by the end of Stage 6.
To multiply successfully, children need to be able to:
 Recall all multiplication facts to 12 × 12
 Partition number into multiples of one hundred, ten and one
 Work out products such as 70 × 5, 70 × 50, 700 × 5 or 700 × 50 using the related fact 7 × 5 and their knowledge of place value
 Add two or more singledigit numbers mentally
 Add multiples of 10 (such as 60 + 70) or of 100 (such as 600 + 700) using the related addition fact, 6 + 7, and their knowledge of place value
 Add combinations of whole numbers using the column method (see above).
 Use short multiplication to multiply a 1 digit number by a number with up to four digits
 Use long multiplication to multiply 3 digit and four digit numbers by a number between 11 – 20 by the end of Stage 5
 Use long multiplication to multiply a two digit number with up to four digits Use short multiplication to multiply a one digit number by a number with one or two decimal places including money.
Note: It is important that children’s mental methods of calculation are practised and secured alongside their learning and use of an efficient written method for multiplication.
Using and Applying  Before children move onto the next stage in written calculation it is important that their skills are broadened through their use and application in a range of contexts (including money, time and other measures).
Multiplication  Stage One
Key vocabulary: groups of, lots of, times, array, altogether, multiply, count. Key skills for multiplication at Stage 1:
 Count in multiples of 2, 5 and 10
 Solve onestep problems involving multiplication, by calculating the answer using concrete objects
 Pictorial representations and arrays with the support of the teacher
 Make connections between arrays, number patterns, and counting in twos, fives and tens
 Begin to understand doubling using concrete objects and pictorial representations
Children should be able to  Multiply with concrete objects, arrays and pictorial representations. How many legs will 3 teddies have? There are 3 sweets in one bag. How many sweets are in 5 bags altogether? 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 15
Give children experience of counting equal group of objects in 2s, 5s and 10s. Present practical problem solving activities involving counting equal sets or groups, as above.
Multiplication  Stage Two
Key vocabulary: groups of, lots of, times, array, altogether, multiply, count, multiplied by, repeated addition, column, row, commutative, sets of, equal groups, times as big as, once, twice, three times. Key skills for multiplication at Stage2:
 Count in steps of 2, 3 and 5 from zero, and in 10s from any number
 Recall and use multiplication facts from the 2, 5 and 10 multiplication tables, including recognising odds and evens
 Write and calculate number statements using the x and = signs
 Show that multiplication can be done in any order (commutative)
 Solve a range of problems involving multiplication, using concrete objects, arrays, repeated addition, mental methods, and multiplication facts
 Pupils use a variety of language to discuss and describe multiplication
Children should be able to  Multiply using arrays and repeated addition (using at least 2s, 5s and 10s). Use repeated addition on a number line: Starting from zero, make equal jumps up on a number line to work out multiplication facts and write multiplication statements using x and = signs. Use arrays: to help teach children to understand the commutative law of multiplication, and give examples such as 3 x __ = 6. Use practical equipment, use mental recall:  Children should begin to recall multiplication facts for 2, 5 and 10 times tables through practice in counting and understanding of the operation.
Multiplication  Stage Three
Key vocabulary: groups of, lots of, times, array, altogether, multiply, count, multiplied by, repeated addition, column, row, commutative, sets of, equal groups, times, ‘_ times as big as’, once, twice, three times, partition, grid method, multiple, product, tens, units, value Key skills for multiplication at Stage 3:
 Recall and use multiplication facts for the 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 and 10 multiplication tables, and multiply multiples of 10
 Write and calculate number statements using the multiplication tables they know, including 2digit x singledigit, drawing upon mental methods, and progressing to reliable written methods
 Solve multiplication problems, including missing number problems
 Develop mental strategies using commutativity (e.g. 4 x 12 x 5 = 4 x 5 x 12 = 20 x 12 = 240)
 Solve simple problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use
 Develop efficient mental methods to solve a range of problems e.g. using commutativity (4 × 12 × 5 = 4 × 5 × 12 = 20 × 12 = 240) and for missing number problems x 5 = 20, 3 x = 18, x = 32
Children should be able to  Multiply 2digits by a single digit number. Introduce the grid method for multiplying 2digit by singledigits. Introduce the grid method with children physically making an array to represent the calculation (e.g. make 8 lots of 23 with 10s and 1s place value counters), then translate this to grid method format. To do this, children must be able to:
 Partition numbers into tens and units
 Multiply multiples of ten by a single digit (e.g. 20 x 4) using their knowledge of multiplication facts and place value
 Recall and work out multiplication facts in the 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 and 10 times tables.
 Work out multiplication facts not known by repeated addition or other taught mental strategies (e.g. by commutative law, working out near multiples and adjusting, using doubling etc.)
Strategies to support this are repeated addition using a number line, bead bars and arrays.
Stage One 
Stage Two 
Stage Three 
Multiplication is related to doubling and counting groups of the same size.
Looking at columns Looking at rows 2 + 2 + 2 3 + 3 3 groups of 2 2 groups of 3 Counting using a variety of practical resources Counting in 2s e.g. counting socks, shoes, animal’s legs… Counting in 5s e.g. counting fingers, fingers in gloves, toes… Counting in 10s e.g. fingers, toes… Pictures / marks There are 3 sweets in one bag. How many sweets are there in 5 bags? 
x = signs and missing numbers 7 x 2 = = 2 x 7 7 x = 14 14 = x 7 x 2 = 14 14 = 2 x x Ñ = 14 14 = x Ñ Arrays and repeated additionl l l l 4 x 2 or 4 + 4 l l l l 2 x 4 or 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 Doubling multiples of 5 up to 5015 x 2 = 30 PartitionChildren need to be secure with partitioning numbers into 10s and 1s and partitioning in different ways: 6 = 5 + 1 so
AND double 15 10 + 5
20 + 10 = 30 ORX 10 5 2 20 10 = 30 
x = signs and missing numbers Continue using a range of equations as in Stage 2 but with appropriate numbers. Arrays and repeated additionContinue to understand multiplication as repeated addition and continue to use arrays (as in Stage 2). Doubling multiples of 5 up to 5035 x 2 = 70 PartitionX 30 5 2 60 10 =70
Use the same method as above (partitioning), e.g. 32 x 3 = 96 = 96 
Multiplication  Stage Four
Key vocabulary: groups of, lots of, times, array, altogether, multiply, count, multiplied by, repeated addition, array, column, row, commutative, groups of, sets of, lots of, equal groups, times, multiply, times as big as, once, twice, three times... partition, grid method, total, multiple, product, sets of, inverse Key skills for multiplication at Stage 4:
 Count in multiples of 6, 7, 9, 25 and 1000
 Recall multiplication facts for all multiplication tables up to 12 x 12
 Recognise place value of digits in up to 4digit numbers
 Use place value, known facts and derived facts to multiply mentally, e.g. multiply by 1, 10, 100, by 0, or to multiply 3 numbers
 Use commutativity and other strategies mentally 3 x 6 = 6 x 3 , 2 x 6 x 5 = 10 x 6 , 39x7 = 30 x 7 + 9 x 7
 Solve problems with increasingly complex multiplication in a range of contexts
 Count in multiples of 6, 7, 9, 25 and 1000
 Recognise the place value of each digit in a fourdigit number (thousands, hundreds, tens, and units)
Children should be able to  Multiply 2 and 3digits by a single digit, using all multiplication tables up to 12 x 12 Developing the grid method: Encourage the use of column addition when adding. Move onto short multiplication (see Stage 5) if and when children are confident and accurate multiplying 2 and 3digit numbers by a single digit this way, and are already confident in carrying for written addition. To do this, children should: Approximate before they calculate, and make this a regular part of their calculating, going back to the approximation to check the reasonableness of their answer. e.g: 346 x 9 is approximately 350 x 10 = 3500. Record an approximation to check the final answer against. Multiply multiples of ten and one hundred by a singledigit, using their multiplication table knowledge. Recall all times tables up to 12 x 12
Multiplication  Stage Five
Key vocabulary: groups of, lots of, times, array, altogether, multiply, count, multiplied by, repeated addition, column, row, commutative, sets of, equal groups, ‘_times as big as’, once, twice, three times, partition, grid method, total, multiple, product, inverse, square, factor, integer, decimal, short/long multiplication, carry. Key skills for multiplication at Stage 5:
 Identify multiples and factors, using knowledge of multiplication tables to 12x12
 Solve problems where larger numbers are decomposed into their factors
 Multiply and divide integers and decimals by 10, 100 and 1000
 Recognise and use square and cube numbers and their notation
 Solve problems involving combinations of operations, choosing and using calculations and methods appropriately
Children should be able to  Multiply up to 4digits by 1 or 2 digits. Be introduced to column multiplication  Introduce by comparing a grid method calculation to a short multiplication method, to see how the steps are related, but notice how there are less steps involved in the column method. Children need to be taught to approximate first, e.g. for 72 x 38, they will use rounding: 72 x 38 is approximately 70 x 40 = 2800, and use the approximation to check the reasonableness of their answer. Use short multiplication for multiplying by a single digit. Pupils could be asked to work out a given calculation using the grid, and then compare it to the column method. What are the similarities and differences? Unpick the steps and show how it reduces the steps. Introduce long multiplication for multiplying by 2 digits. The grid could be used to introduce long multiplication, as the relationship can be seen in the answers in each row. Moving towards more complex numbers.
Multiplication  Stage Six
Key vocabulary: groups of, lots of, times, array, altogether, multiply, count, multiplied by, repeated addition, array, column, row, commutative, sets of, equal groups, times as big as, once, twice, three times, partition, grid method, total, multiple, product, inverse, square, factor, integer, decimal, short / long multiplication, carry, tenths, hundredths, decimal. Key skills for multiplication at Stage 6:
 Recall multiplication facts for all times tables up to 12 x 12 (as Y4 and Y5)
 Multiply multidigit numbers, up to 4digit x 2digit using long multiplication
 Perform mental calculations with mixed operations and large numbers
 Solve multistep problems in a range of contexts, choosing appropriate combinations of operations and methods
 Estimate answers using round and approximation and determine levels of accuracy
 Round any integer to a required degree of accuracy. Suggested Video clips:  Moving from grid method to a compact method (YouTube)  Reinforcing rapid times table recall: (YouTube)  Demonstration of long multiplication (SLEP)
Children should be able to  use Short and long multiplication as in Stage 5, and multiply decimals with up to 2d.p by a single digit. Use rounding and place value to make approximations before calculating and use these to check answers. Use short multiplication (see Stage 5) to multiply numbers with more than 4digits by a single digit; to multiply money and measures. Use long multiplication (see Stage 5) to multiply numbers with at least 4 digits by a 2digit number.
Stage Four 
Stage Five 
Stage Six 

x = signs and missing numbers Continue using a range of equations as in Stage 2 but with appropriate numbers PartitionContinue to use arrays: 18 x 9 = 162 18 x 9 = (10 x 9) + (8 x 9) = 162 ORUse the grid method of multiplication (as below) Pencil and paper procedures Grid method 23 x 7 is approximately 20 x 10 = 200
x 20 3 7 140 21 = 161 
Partition47 x 6 = 282 47 x 6 = (40 x 6) + (7 x 6) = 282 ORUse the grid method of multiplication (as below) Pencil and paper procedures Grid method 72 x 38 is approximately 70 x 40 = 2800 2100 + 60 = 2160 560 + 16 = 576 2160 560 + 2736 Expanded Column Multiplication Children should describe what they do by referring to the actual values of the digits in the columns. For example, the first step in 38 × 7 is ‘thirty multiplied by seven’, not ‘three times seven’, although the relationship 3 × 7 should be stressed. 30 + 8 38 x 7 x 7 56 (8 x 7 = 56) 56 210 (30 x 7 = 210) 210 266 266 
Partition87 x 6 = 522 87 x 6 = (80 x 6) + (7 x 6) = 522 ORUse the grid method of multiplication (as below) Pencil and paper proceduresGrid method 372 x 24 is approximately 400 x 20 = 8000 Extend to decimals with up to two decimal places. Short Column Multiplication The recording is reduced further, with carry digits recorded below the line. 38 x 7 266 5 Children who are already secure with multiplication for TU × U and TU × TU should have little difficulty in using the same method for HTU × TU or applying decimals. 286 x 29 2574 (9 x 286 = 2574) 5720 (20 x 286 = 5720) 8294 1 

Calculation Guidelines for Gifted and Talented Children Working Beyond Primary Level 

Mental methods Use partitioningPartition either part of the product e.g. 7.3 x 11 = (7.3 x 10) + 7.3 = 80.3 ORUse the grid method of multiplication (as below). Pencil and paper procedures (Written methods)Use written methods to support, record or explain multiplication of:
Grid method = 49.92 Grid lines can become optional 

DIVISION
The aim is that children use mental methods when appropriate, but for calculations that they cannot do in their heads they use an efficient written method accurately and with confidence. Children are entitled to be taught and to acquire secure mental methods of calculation and one efficient written method of calculation for division which they know they can rely on when mental methods are not appropriate.
These notes show the stages in building up to long division through Stages 3 to 6 – first long division TU ÷ U, extending to HTU ÷ U, then HTU ÷ TU, and then short division HTU ÷ U. To divide successfully in their heads, children need to be able to:
 Understand and use the vocabulary of division – for example in 18 ÷ 3 = 6, the 18 is the dividend, the 3 is the divisor and the 6 is the quotient
 Partition twodigit and threedigit numbers into multiples of 100, 10 and 1 in different ways
 Recall multiplication and division facts to 10 × 10, recognise multiples of onedigit numbers and divide multiples of 10 or 100 by a singledigit number using their knowledge of division facts and place value
 Know how to find a remainder working mentally – for example, find the remainder when 48 is divided by 5
 Understand and use multiplication and division as inverse operations
Note: It is important that children’s mental methods of calculation are practised and secured alongside their learning and use of an efficient written method for division.
To carry out written methods of division successful, children also need to be able to:
 Understand division as repeated subtraction
 Estimate how many times one number divides into another – for example, how many sixes there are in 47, or how many 23s there are in 92
 Multiply a twodigit number by a singledigit number mentally
 Subtract numbers using the column method
Using and Applying  Before children move onto the next stage in written calculation it is important that their skills are broadened through their use and application in a range of contexts (including money, time and other measures).
Division  Stage One
Key Vocabulary: share, share equally, one each, two each…, group, groups of, lots of, array, Key skills for division at Stage 1:
 Solve onestep problems involving multiplication and division, by calculating the answer using concrete objects, pictorial representations arrays with the support of the teacher
 Through grouping and sharing small quantities, pupils begin to understand division, and finding simple fractions of objects, numbers and quantities
 Children can make connections between arrays, number patterns, and counting in twos, fives and tens
Children should be able to  Group and share large quantities. Using objects, diagrams and pictorial representations to solve problems involving both grouping and sharing. Pupils should:  Use lots of practical apparatus, arrays and picture representations. Be taught to understand the difference between ‘grouping’ objects (How many groups of 2 can you make?) and ‘sharing’. (Share these sweets between 2 people). Be able to count in multiples of 2s, 5s and 10s. Find half of a group of objects by sharing into 2 equal groups.
Division  Stage Two
Key Vocabulary: share, share equally, one each, two each…, group, equal groups of, lots of, array, divide, divided by, divided into, division, grouping, number line, left, left over Key skills for division at Stage 2:
 Count in steps of 2, 3, and 5 from 0
 Recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 2, 5 and 10 multiplication tables, including recognising odd and even numbers
 Calculate mathematical statements for multiplication and division within the multiplication tables and write them using the x, ÷ and = signs
 Show that multiplication of two numbers can be done in any order (commutative) and division of one number by another cannot
 Solve problems involving multiplication and division, using materials, arrays, repeated addition, mental methods, and multiplication and division facts, including problems in contexts
Children should be able to  Group and share, using the ÷ and = sign Use objects, arrays, diagrams and pictorial representations, and grouping on a number line. Pose 12 ÷ 3 as ‘How many groups of 3 are in 12?’
Division  Stage Three
Key Vocabulary: share, share equally, one each, two each…, group, equal groups of, lots of, array, divide, divided by, divided into, division, grouping, number line, left, left over, inverse, short division, carry, remainder, multiple . Key skills for division at Stage 3:
 Recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 and 10 multiplication tables (through doubling, connect the 2, 4 and 8s)
 Write and calculate mathematical statements for multiplication and division using the multiplication tables that they know, including for twodigit numbers times onedigit numbers, using mental and progressing to formal written methods
 Solve problems, in contexts, and including missing number problems, involving multiplication and division
 Pupils develop efficient mental methods, for example, using multiplication and division facts (e.g. using 3 × 2 = 6, 6 ÷ 3 = 2 and 2 = 6 ÷ 3) to derive related facts (30 × 2 = 60, so 60 ÷ 3 = 20 and 20 = 60 ÷ 3)
 Pupils develop reliable written methods for division, starting with calculations of 2digit numbers by 1digit numbers and progressing to the formal written method of short division
Children should be able to  Divide 2digit numbers by a single digit (where there is no remainder in the final answer). Step 1: When the answer for the first column is zero (1 ÷ 5, as in example), children could initially write a zero above to acknowledge its place, and must always carry the number (1) over to the next digit as a remainder. STEP 2: Pupils move onto dividing numbers with up to 3digits by a single digit, however problems and calculations provided should not result in a final answer with remainder at this stage. Children who exceed this expectation may progress to Stage 5. Include money and measure contexts when confident. Real life contexts need to be used routinely to help pupils gain a full understanding, and the ability to recognise the place of division and how to apply it to problems .
Stage One 
Stage Two 
Stage Three 
Sharing Requires secure counting skills see counting and understanding number strand Develops importance of onetoone correspondence See appendix for additional information on x and ÷ and aspects of number
Sharing – 6 sweets are shared between 2 people. How many do they have each? lll lll Practical activities involving sharing, distributing cards when playing a game, putting objects onto plates, into cups, hoops etc. Grouping Sorting objects into 2s / 3s/ 4s etc How many pairs of socks are there? There are 12 crocus bulbs. Plant 3 in each pot. How many pots are there? Jo has 12 Lego wheels. How many cars can she make? 
÷ = signs and missing numbers 6 ÷ 2 = = 6 ÷ 2 6 ÷ = 3 3 = 6 ÷ ÷ 2 = 3 3 = ÷ 2 ÷ Ñ = 3 3 = ÷ Ñ Grouping Link to counting and understanding number strand Count up to 100 objects by grouping them and counting in tens, fives or twos;… Find one half, one quarter and three quarters of shapes and sets of objects 6 ¸ 2 can be modelled as: There are 6 strawberries. How many people can have 2 each? How many 2s make 6? 6 ¸ 2 can be modelled as:
In the context of money count forwards and backwards using 2p, 5p and 10p coins Practical grouping e.g. in PE 12 children get into teams of 4 to play a game. How many teams are there? 
÷ = signs and missing numbers Continue using a range of equations as in Stage 2 but with appropriate numbers. Understand division as sharing and grouping18 ÷ 3 can be modelled as: Sharing – 18 shared between 3 (see Year 1 diagram) ORGrouping  How many 3’s make 18? 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 Remainders16 ÷ 3 = 5 r1 Sharing  16 shared between 3, how many left over? Grouping – How many 3’s make 16, how many left over? 0 3 6 9 12 15 16 
Division  Stage Four
Key Vocabulary: share, share equally, one each, two each…, group, equal groups of, lots of, array, divide, divided by, divided into, division, grouping, number line, left, left over, inverse, short division, carry, remainder, multiple, divisible by, factor. Key skills needed for division at Stage 4:
 Recall multiplication and division facts for all numbers up to 12 x 12
 Use place value, known and derived facts to multiply and divide mentally, including: multiplying and dividing by 10 and 100 and 1
 Pupils practise to become fluent in the formal written method of short division with exact answers when dividing by a onedigit number
 Pupils practise mental methods and extend this to threedigit numbers to derive facts, for example 200 × 3 = 600 so 600 ÷ 3 = 200
 Pupils solve twostep problems in contexts, choosing the appropriate operation, working with increasingly harder numbers. This should include correspondence questions such as three cakes shared equally between 10 children
Children should be able to  Divide up to 3digit numbers by a single digit (without remainders initially) Continue to develop short division: STEP 1: Pupils must be secure with the process of short division for dividing 2digit numbers by a single digit (those that do not result in a final remainder  see steps in Stage 3), but must understand how to calculate remainders, using this to carry remainders within the calculation process. Short division should only be taught once children have secured the skill of calculating “remainders”. Real life contexts need to be used routinely to help pupils gain a full understanding and the ability to recognise the place of division and how to apply it to problems.
Division  Stage Five
Key Vocabulary: share, share equally, one each, two each…, group, equal groups of, lots of, array, divide, divided by, divided into, division, grouping, number line, left, left over, inverse, short division, carry, remainder, multiple, divisible by, factor, inverse, quotient, prime number, prime factors, composite number (nonprime). Key skills for division at Stage 5:
 Recall multiplication and division facts for all numbers up to 12 x 12 (as in Y4)
 Multiply and divide numbers mentally, drawing upon known facts
 Identify multiples and factors, including finding all factor pairs of a number, and common factors of two numbers
 Solve problems involving multiplication and division where larger numbers are decomposed into their factors
 Multiply and divide whole numbers and those involving decimals by 10, 100 and 1000
 Use the vocabulary of prime numbers, prime factors and composite (nonprime) numbers
 Work out whether a number up to 100 is prime, and recall prime numbers to 19
 Divide numbers up to 4 digits by a onedigit number using the formal written method of short division and interpret remainders appropriately for the context
 Use multiplication and division as inverses
 Interpret noninteger answers to division by expressing results in different ways according to the context, including with remainders, as fractions, as decimals or by rounding (e.g. 98 ÷ 4 = 24 r 2 = 24 ½ = 24.5 ˜ 25)
 Solve problems involving combinations of all four operations, including understanding of the equals sign, and including division for scaling by different fractions and problems involving simple rates.
Children should be able to  Divide up to 4 digits by a single digit, including those with remainders. Short division with remainders: Now that pupils are introduced to examples that give rise to remainder answers, division needs to have a real life problem solving context, where pupils consider the meaning of the remainder and how to express it, i.e. as a fraction, a decimal, or as a rounded number or value, depending upon the context of the problem. The answer to 5309 ÷ 8 could be expressed as 663 and five eighths, 663 r 5, as a decimal, or rounded as appropriate to the problem involved. Include money and measure contexts. See Stage 6 for how to continue the short division to give a decimal answer for children who are confident. If children are confident and accurate: Introduce long division for pupils who are ready to divide any number by a 2digit number (e.g. 2678 ÷ 19). This is a Stage 6 expectation.
Division  Stage Six
Key Vocabulary: share, share equally, one each, two each…, group, equal groups of, lots of, array, divide, divided by, divided into, division, grouping, number line, left, left over, inverse, short division, carry, remainder, multiple, divisible by, factor, inverse, quotient, prime number, prime factors, composite number (nonprime), common factor. Key skill for division at Stage 6:
 Recall and use multiplication and division facts for all numbers to 12 x 12 for more complex calculations
 Divide numbers up to 4 digits by a twodigit whole number using the formal written method of long division, and interpret remainders as whole number remainders, fractions, or by rounding, as appropriate for the context
 Use short division where appropriate
 Perform mental calculations, including with mixed operations and large numbers
 Identify common factors, common multiples and prime numbers
 Solve problems involving all 4 operations
 Use estimation to check answers to calculations and determine accuracy, in the context of a problem
 Use written division methods in cases where the answer has up to two decimal places
 Solve problems which require answers to be rounded to specified degrees of accuracy
Children should be able to  Divide at least 4 digits by both singledigit and 2digit numbers (including decimal numbers and quantities). Short division with remainders: Pupils should continue to use this method, but with numbers to at least 4 digits, and understand how to express remainders as fractions, decimals, whole number remainders, or rounded numbers. Real life problem solving contexts need to be the starting point, where pupils have to consider the most appropriate way to express the remainder.
Stage Four 
Stage Five 
Stage Six 
÷ = signs and missing numbers Continue using a range of equations as in Stage 2 but with appropriate numbers. Sharing and grouping30 ÷ 6 can be modelled as: grouping – groups of 6 placed on no. line and the number of groups counted e.g. sharing – sharing among 6, the number given to each person Remainders 41 ÷ 4 = 10 r1 41 = (10 x 4) + 1Pencil and paper procedures Chunking.72 ÷ 5 lies between 50 ¸ 5 = 10 and 100 ¸ 5 = 20 * Partition the dividend into multiples of the divisor: 50 ÷ 5 = 10 22 ÷ 5 = 4r2 ® 10 + 4r2 = 14 r 2 OR 72  50 (10 groups) 22  20 (4 groups) 2 Answer : 14 remainder 2 
Sharing and groupingContinue to understand division as both sharing and grouping (repeated subtraction). RemaindersQuotients expressed as fractions or decimal fractions 61 ÷ 4 = 15 ¼ or 15.25 Pencil and paper procedures Chunking256 ÷ 7 lies between 210 ¸ 7 = 30 and 280 ¸ 7 = 40 * Partition the dividend into multiples of the divisor: 210 ÷ 7 = 30 46 ÷ 7 = 6r4 ® 30 + 6r4 = 36r4 OR 256  210 (30 groups) 46  42 (6 groups) 4 Answer: 36 remainder 4 Also, Short Division for More Able Children
Considering each column starting from the left. See Stage Six for full explanation. 
Sharing, grouping and remainders as Stage FivePencil and paper procedures Chunking977 ÷ 36 is approximately 1000 ¸ 40 = 25 * Partition the dividend into multiples of the divisor: 720 ÷ 36 = 20 180 ÷ 36 = 5 77 ÷ 36 = 2r5 ® 20 + 5 + 2r5 = 27r5 OR 977  720 (20 groups) 257  180 (5 groups) 77  72 (2 groups) 5 Answer: 27 ^{5}/_{36} Pencil and Paper procedures Short Division Method Write down how many times your divisor goes into the first number of the dividend.If there is a remainder, that's okay. Write down your remainderto the left of the next digit in the dividend.
Both methods above are necessary at this stage, to deal with the wide range of problems experienced at Stage Six. 
Calculation Guidelines for Gifted and Talented Children Working Beyond Primary Level 

Pencil and paper procedures (Written methods) Use written methods to support, record or explain division of:
Refine methods to improve efficiency while maintaining accuracy and understanding.
109.6  80 (10 groups of 8) 29.6  24 ( 3 ) 5.6  5.6 ( 0.7 ) 0.0 Answer: 13.7 
Pencil and paper procedures (Written methods) Continue to use the same method as in Year 7 and Year 8. Adjust the dividend and divisor by a common factor before the division so that no further adjustment is needed after the calculation e.g. 361.6 ÷ 0.8 is equivalent to 3616 ÷ 8 Use the inverse rule to divide fractions, first converting mixed numbers to improper fractions. Look at one half of a shape. How many sixths of the shape canyou see? (six) So, how many sixths in one half? (three) So ½ ÷ ^{1}/_{6 }= ½ x ^{6}/_{1 } _{ }= ^{6}/_{2} _{ }= 3 
Date Policy Adopted by Governing Body 
Review dates 

April 2015 
April 2017 
April 2018 
Policy developed by: C. Vanson (Headteacher) April 2015
Lowick and Holy Island C. of E. First Schools
Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) and Play Policy
The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) applies to children from birth to the end of the Reception year. At Lowick and Holy Island C. of E. First Schools (to be known as the school for the purpose of this document), children join the EYFS Unit in the term in which they become three i.e. ‘Rising 3’s’. They progress through the EYFS becoming Reception aged children in the year that they turn five. In partnership with parents and carers we enable the children to begin the process of becoming active learners for life. We endeavour to ensure that children “learn and develop well and kept healthy and safe.” We aim to support children in their learning through “teaching and experiences that gives children the broad range of skills that provide the right foundation for good progress through school and in life.” (Statutory Framework for the EYFS 2012)
At the school: “Each area of learning and development is implemented through planned, purposeful play and through a mix of adultled and childinitiated activity. Play is used as an essential part children’s development, building their confidence as they learn to explore, to think about problems, and relate to others. Children learn by leading their own play, and by taking part in play which is guided by adults. There is an ongoing judgement to be made by practitioners about the balance between activities led by children, and activities led or guided by adults. Practitioners must respond to each child’s emerging needs and interests, guiding their development through warm, positive interaction. As children grow older, and as their development allows, it is expected that the balance will gradually shift towards more activities led by adults, to help children prepare for more formal learning, ready for Year 1.” (Statutory Framework for EYFS 2012) 
The EYFS is based upon four principles:
A Unique Child
We recognise that every child is a competent learner who can be resilient, capable, confident and self assured. We recognise that children develop in individual ways, at varying rates. Children’s attitudes and dispositions to learning are influenced by feedback from others; we use praise and encouragement, as well as celebration assemblies and rewards, to encourage children to develop a positive attitude to learning.
We meet the needs of all our children through:
Welfare
It is important to us that all children in the school are ‘safe’. We aim to educate children on boundaries, rules and limits and to help them understand why they exist. We provide children with choices to help them develop this important life skill. Children should be allowed to take risks, but need to be taught how to recognise and avoid hazards. We aim to protect the physical and psychological wellbeing of all children. (See Whole School Safeguarding Policy)
“Children learn best when they are healthy, safe and secure, when their individual needs are met and when they have positive relationships with the adults caring for them.”
(Statutory Framework for the EYFS 2012)
At the school we understand that we are legally required to comply with certain welfare requirements as stated in the Statutory Framework for Early Years Foundation Stage 2012. We understand that we are required to:
Positive Relationships
At the school we recognise that children learn to be strong independent from secure relationships. We aim to develop caring, respectful, professional relationships with the children and their families.
Parents as Partners
We recognise that the contribution that parents make. We recognise the role that parents have played, and their future role, in educating the children. We do this through:
Enabling Environments
We aim to create an attractive and stimulating play and learning environment where children feel confident, secure and challenged. The children have daily access to an indoor and outdoor environment that is set up in discrete areas of learning with planned continuous provision.
Effective learning builds and extends upon prior learning and following children’s interest. Effective planning is informed by observations of the children to ensure we follow their current interests and experiences. These observations are recorded using Tapestry and shared with parents immediately.
Play based learning is paramount and children direct their own learning from carefully planned opportunities provided by staff. Staff will enhance play and extend as needed to further individual learning.
Learning and Development
There are seven areas of learning and development, of which three are “Prime Areas,” and four “Specific Areas.”
The Prime Areas are:
Communication and Language
Physical Development
Personal, Social and Emotional Development.
The specific areas are:
Literacy
Mathematics
Understanding of the World and
Expressive Arts and Design
Through careful assessments and observations, including information provided by parents and other settings, children’s development levels are assessed. The balance will shift towards a more equal focus on all areas of learning as children grow in confidence and ability within the three prime areas.
Planning and guided children’s activities will reflect on the different ways that children learn and reflect these in their practice. At the school we support children in using the three characteristics of effective teaching and learning. These are;
(Taken from statutory framework for the EYFS 2012)
Equal Opportunities
All members of the school are treated as individuals. We aim to meet the needs of all, taking account of gender, ability, ethnicity, culture, religion, language, sexual orientation, age, special educational needs, disability, and social circumstances. All staff are aware of the need for the curriculum to reflect cultural diversity and the need to prepare pupils for life in a diverse and multifaith society.
Health and Safety
At the school there are clear procedures for assessing risk (see whole school risk assessment policy) which includes procedures for keeping children safe during outings and for any aspects of the environment or provision that may require a further risk assessment. In addition to this, an annual risk assessment is conducted of the EYFS (see EYFS risk assessment) and in safeguarding and child protection polices, as well as a daily Risk Assessment of the EYFS environment, there is detailed information and procedures to ensure the safety of the children. The EYFS risk assessment must be read in conjunction with other relevant whole school polices (see EYFS risk assessment)
Transition From Home/Preschool /Feeder settings
During the term prior to a child’s entry into the EYFS Unit, the following procedures have been put into place to ensure successful transition:
From Reception Class to Key Stage 1
During the final term in Reception, the EYFS Profile is completed for each child. The Profile provides parents and carers, staff and teachers with a wellrounded picture of a child’s knowledge, understanding and abilities, their progress against expected levels, and their readiness for Year 1. The Profile includes ongoing observation, all relevant records held by the setting, discussions with parents and carers, and any other adults whom the teacher, parent or carer judges can offer a useful contribution.
Each child’s level of development is assessed against the early learning goals. The profile indicates whether children are meeting expected levels of development, or if they are exceeding expected levels, or not yet reaching expected levels (‘emerging’). Year 1 teachers are given a copy of the Profile Report together with a short commentary on each child’s skills and abilities in relation to the three key characteristics of effective learning. This informs the dialogue between Reception and the Year 1 teacher about each child’s stage of development.
Date Adopted 
Review dates 

April 2015 
April 2017 
April 2018 
Policy developed by: C. Vanson (Headteacher) April 2015
Lowick and Holy Island C. of E. First Schools
Penalty Notice
The Antisocial Behaviour Act 2003 gave new powers to designated Local Education Authority Officers, typically Education Welfare Officers, Headteachers and the Police to issue Penalty Notices to parents in the case of their child’s irregular school attendance. These powers came into force on 27^{th} February 2004. The Education and Inspections Act 2006 made changes to the 2003 Act by extending the use of Penalty Notices to include the whereabouts of excluded pupils. These provisions came into force on the 1^{st} September 2007. Since its inception the triggers for issuing Penalty Notices has increased, due to the safeguarding issues around children ‘missing from school’
We at Lowick and Holy Island C. of E. First Schools believe that absence from school, for whatever reason, is detrimental to a child’s long term life opportunities, so should be avoided if at all possible. Reducing absence from school is a key priority, both Nationally and locally, as missing school damages pupil progress, attainment levels, disrupts school routines and can leave children at risk to anti – social behaviour, youth crime and possible exploitation (Safeguarding issues).
What is a Penalty Notice?
Penalty notices are fines that can be issued by a Local Authority (LA) or school to parents. An unauthorised absence is deemed to be;
When a pupil has an unauthorised absence of 10 sessions (5 days) or more, in any term time (where no acceptable reason has been given for the absence) or if the child persistently arrives late to school, after the close of Registration.
Parents will receive a written warning (by post to their home) of a Notice being issued, which will tell them the extent of the child’s absences, and give the parent 15 school days to effect an improvement. There is no limit to the number of formal warnings which can be issued.
When is a Penalty Notice appropriate?
 Parents of a registered pupil whose child fails to attend school regularly are committing an offence under section 444 (1) Education Act 1996. A penalty notice for irregular attendance can be issued where the parent is capable of but unwilling to secure an improvement in their child’s school attendance.
 Where a parent fails, without a reasonable excuse, to ensure that their excluded child is not present in a public place during school hours in the first five days of any exclusion, then s/he is committing an offence under section 103 of the Education and Inspections Act 2006.
The notice will state the fine payable and the timescales for doing so (if paid within 21 days £60/child or £120/child if paid within 28 days). All payments are made to the LA. Failure to pay a Penalty Notice may result in prosecution.
Parents may also receive a Penalty Notice without a warning letter for the offence of failing to secure regular school attendance under the following circumstances;
 Holidays taken in term time.
 As part of the ‘fast track’ system to improve attendance. Ofsted state that a child should have an attendance of 95% or higher. If it falls below this level then it is deemed to be a ‘Safeguarding issue’.
 Inappropriate parentally condoned absence e.g. knowingly keeping the child off school for convenience, family events, tiredness or perceived ‘illness’.
 Child’s failure to return to school following a fixed term exclusion.
 Child is stopped on a truancy sweep.
 Persistent late arrival at school (after the Register is closed).
What are the advantages?
The benefits for both the LA and parents are:
 The LA can save some of the time and money that they spend on prosecuting parents. Savings could be considerable depending on local circumstances.
 Parents who accept (i.e. pay) the penalty will not get a criminal record for that offence.
Penalty Notices provide a much quicker, cheaper and more effective way of sanctioning parents who need to focus on their responsibilities for their children’s education.
Therefore Penalty Notices provide an alternative to prosecution and enable parents to discharge potential liability for conviction for an offence by paying the penalty.
What happens if a Penalty Notice is unpaid?
If a Penalty Notice is unpaid after 28 days and it is not withdrawn [see specific grounds details in the Education (Penalty Notices) Regulations (England) 2007] then the LA must prosecute the parent. Prosecution will be for the original offence of non – attendance/failing to ensure that an excluded pupil is not in a public place, and not for nonpayment of the penalty. The court can impose a fine of up to £2,500 and/or a range of other measures, (depending upon the circumstances of the offence, such as:
 Parenting Order
 School Attendance Order (see below for additional information)
 Community Sentences
 jail sentence of up to 3 months
(A School Attendance Order is issued if the LA believes that the child isn’t getting an education. The parent has 15 days to provide evidence that they have registered the child with a school or that they are going to Home Educate).
Additional Information
Useful advice to parents;
 Send/bring your child to school on time every day.
 If your child is unwell, contact the school on the first day of absence and return your child to school as soon as possible.
 Make sure your child knows you do not approve of them missing school.
 Take holidays only during school holidays.
 Make sure your child goes to school with the correct uniform and equipment.
Date Updated 
Position 
Signature 
April 2015 

Reviewed: Annually 
Lowick and Holy Island C. of E. First Schools
Curriculum Policy
Then I heard the Lord asking, "Whom should I send as a messenger to this people?
Who will go for us?" I said, "Here I am. Send me."
Isaiah 6:8
Introduction
At Lowick and Holy Island C. of E. First Schools (to known as the school for the purpose of this document) we believe that the curriculum is a powerful tool that promotes a love of learning and willingness to explore, and the time to have fun. We are proud to use the National Curriculum as a starting point for a wide and varied learning experience for our children. The curriculum is all the planned activities that we organise in order to promote learning and personal growth and development. It includes not only the formal requirements of the National Curriculum, but also the range of extracurricular activities that the school organises in order to enrich the experience of the children.
It also includes the ‘hidden curriculum’, or what the children learn from the way they are treated and expected to behave. We aim to teach children how to grow into positive, responsible people, who can work and cooperate with others while developing knowledge and skills, so that they achieve their true potential.
We enrich it by our strong ethos based on respect for ourselves and others, equality and a sense of wonder at the world we live in. We are committed to developing the whole child. Our children will have the opportunity to be creative, to be physically active and to be academically challenged. Children are offered a very wide range of experiences to extend their understanding of themselves and the world in which they live. Skills, attitudes and values would be developed to prepare the children for the next stage of learning (‘Middle School ready’ and ‘High School ready’), and enable them to be successful in the community.
The National Curriculum in England is currently in a process of full transition. At the school we are currently following the timetable for transition, between the National Curriculum (2000) and the National Curriculum (2014), as set out by the Department of Education.
From September 2014 children in Year 3 and Year 4 will follow and be taught programmes of study from the 2014 National Curriculum. Children in Year 2 will still follow and be taught programmes of study in English, Mathematics and Science from National Curriculum (2000) until the end of the academic year 2015. From September 2015 all Year groups will follow and be taught programmes of study from the National Curriculum 2014.
We are continually reviewing and improving the curriculum we offer to our children. The curriculum at the school is evolving according to the needs of our children and to the aspirations of the staff and community.
Values
We value the way in which all children are unique, and our curriculum promotes respect for the views of each individual child, as well as for people of all cultures. We value the spiritual and moral development of each person, as well as their intellectual and physical growth.
We value the importance of each person in our community. We organise our curriculum so that we promote cooperation and understanding between all members of our community. We use the community to enrich the curriculum.
We value the rights enjoyed by each person in our society. We respect each child in our school for who they are, and we treat them with fairness and honesty. We aim to enable each person to be successful, and we provide equal opportunities for all the children in our school.
We value our environment, and we aim, through our curriculum, to teach respect for our world, and how we should care for it for future generations, as well as our own.
We value parents and work in partnership with them to enrich the curriculum. Parents are informed about the curriculum through newsletters, open days, homework and curriculum workshops, and are positively encouraged to become involved.
Aims and Objectives
The aims of our school curriculum are:
Organisation and Planning
We plan our curriculum in three phases. We agree a longterm plan for the whole school and each key stage. This indicates what topics are to be taught in each term.
With our mediumterm plans, we give clear guidance on the objectives and teaching strategies that we use when teaching each topic. We take our mediumterm planning directly from the 2014 National Curriculum guidance documents.
Our shortterm plans are those that our teachers write on a weekly basis.
We have adopted an interdisciplinary/crosscurricular approach to curriculum planning, teaching and learning, using the ‘Mantle of the Expert’ as a vehicle for teaching. The Mantle of the Expert is used to develop a curriculum that is exciting for the children and provides context and coherence between content, skills and the development of critical thinking skills. It also provides an opportunity to harness the interests of our children, building in motivation and deeper immersive learning. The most effective learning takes place when there is considerable emphasis on active involvement, opportunities to talk both imaginatively, expressively and to explain and clarify thinking. Connections across subjects are integral to curriculum design.
We typically plan to complete a ‘Mantle’ one per term, on an appropriate and engaging subject. The theme may incorporate history, geography, music, science, the arts, English and Maths, as well as the development of responsible citizenship, but will have a strong emphasis on the development of Key Skills.
Our intended outcome for all children is that they develop into successful learners who can work both independently and cooperatively as a group, who can collect and analyse information, understand and accept different perspectives, and interpret and evaluate outcomes. We plan the curriculum carefully, so that there is coherence and full coverage of all aspects of the National Curriculum and Early Learning Goals, and there is planned progression in all curriculum areas.
Visits are planned to enhance the taught curriculum and are designed to engage the children’s interest and imagination, as well as deepen their understanding of the ‘learning’. These may involve visits to museums, galleries, historical sites, areas of geographical interest, the theatre or to special sports activity days.
For a breakdown by subject see Appendix 1
For a breakdown on Homework see Appendix 2
Children with Special Needs
The curriculum in our school is designed to provide access and opportunity for all children who attend the school. If we think it necessary to adapt the curriculum to meet the needs of individual children, then we do so only after the parents of the child have been consulted.
If a child has a special need, our school does all it can to meet their individual needs, through Inclusion. We comply with the requirements set out in the SEN Code of Practice (July 2014) in providing for children with special needs. If a child displays signs of having special needs, his/her teacher makes an assessment of this need. In most instances the teacher is able to provide resources and educational opportunities which meet the child’s needs within the normal class organisation. If a child’s need is more severe, we will refer the child to the LIST Team for assessment/additional input, which may lead to ‘top up’ funding and a statement of special needs. We provide additional resources and support for children with special needs.
The Early Years and Foundation Stage
See EYFS Policy
The curriculum that we teach in the EYFS Unit meets the requirements set out in the revised National Curriculum at Foundation Stage. Our curriculum planning focuses on the six areas of learning: personal, social and emotional development; communication – language and literacy; mathematical development; knowledge and understanding of the world; physical development and creative development.
Our school fully supports the principle that young children learn through play, and by engaging in wellplanned structured activities. Teaching in the EYFS Unit builds on the experiences of the children in their home setting.
During the children’s first term in school, their teacher begins to assess each child. This assessment forms an important part of the future curriculum planning for each child. We are well aware that all children need the support of parents and teachers to make good progress in school. We strive to build positive links with the parents of each child by having a carefully planned induction process including home visits (if required). This relationship is nurtured throughout their time in Foundation Stage and onto KS1.
Key Skills
The following skills have been deemed ‘key skills’ in the revised National Curriculum:
We strive to develop these skills across the curriculum.
ExtraCurricular Activities
We are committed to developing the whole child. We extend the curriculum by offering extracurricular activities, including: Multi – skills, Football, Archery, Fencing, Cricket, Gardening, Computers, Forest School.
The Role of the Subject Leader
The role of the subject leader is to:
It is the role of each subject leader to keep up to date with developments in their subject, at both national and local level. They review the way the subject is taught in the school and plan for improvement. This development planning links to wholeschool objectives. Each subject leader reviews the curriculum plans for their subject, ensures that there is full coverage of the National Curriculum and that progression is planned into schemes of work.
Monitoring and Review
The governing body is responsible for monitoring the way the school curriculum is implemented. The governors liaise with the Headteacher and subject leaders and monitor the way the school teaches subjects through governor visits to school.
The Headteacher is responsible for the day to day organisation of the curriculum. The Headteacher monitors the curriculum through planning, classroom observation, work scrutiny, data analysis and liaising with the Curriculum Coordinators.
The Governing Body will review this policy biannually and update, modify or amend it as it considers necessary to ensure the policy meets the needs of Lowick and Holy Island C. of E. First Schools
Date Adopted 
Review Dates 

April 2015 
April 2017 
April 2019 
Policy Developed by: C. Vanson (Headteacher) April 2015
Appendix 1
English
The school benefits from the outstanding policy and practice that has been established at the school over many years, in regard to English attainment and achievement.
All children are provided with access to inspiring, quality texts, to promote a love of reading and build children’s confidence as readers. Children become experienced in exploring a rich variety of text types, including visual texts. We support children to develop their skills in decoding words where necessary, and in understanding texts at a literal level, Interpreting implied meaning, understanding how texts are organised, discussing authors’ use of language, identifying the effect on the reader and making links between texts and real life, including historical context.
Teachers and support staff work together to provide opportunities for children to work on all aspects of reading including whole class discussions and debates, paired and group work, written responses to texts (e.g. writing in role as a character), crosscurricular work, and use of film and imagery. Children are encouraged to think critically about texts and become discerning and analytical readers.
Daily reading in Tutor Group supports readers at all levels and stages of reading development, it is a key component of the teaching day. This allows for high ability readers to engage in texts that make increasing demands on comprehension, inference and links to other texts and authors. It also supports early/emergent readers at lower levels to engage in differentiated materials and age appropriate levels and allows for active teaching of reading objectives. We use the Oxford reading Tree as the scaffold for reading, supported by other schemes, phonics is taught using ‘Jolly Phonics.’
Computing is integrated into literacy teaching, both as a highly engaging teaching tool, (using key resources such as The Literacy Shed), and as an expected outcome – published writing for a range of audiences in school and other platforms.
We seek to turn pupils into writers who are clear communicators who are also creative, imaginative and inspired. To support children in moving towards independent writing we provide a wide range of activities including: Immersion in text types, use of film and imagery, modelled, shared and guided writing, peer editing and discussion. We use literacy scaffolds and supports for less able pupils, and make full use of success criteria that reflect high expectations of written and spoken outcomes. Explicit punctuation and grammar learning objectives are integrated into schemes of work as recommended by leading Literacy Advisers such as The Literacy Tree and the Centre for Literacy in Primary Education.
Drama
We use the benefits of drama as a standalone subject, as well as a key tool in developing oracy, vocabulary development, building confidence and self esteem, and as an essential tool in developing imaginative, expressive, and persuasive spoken and written language.
Imaginative role play is fundamental to developing the whole child, not just in Early Years and KS1 education, but also as they children develop, and our curriculum provides opportunities to perform to wider audiences through Collective Worship, public performances and events around key Christian festivals. As well as using the key tools of ‘hot seating’, and ‘response in role’ in literacy lessons to aid the development of speaking and listening, reading and writing skills, children get increasing opportunities to perform as they progress through the school.
English Programmes of Study:
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/nationalcurriculuminenglandenglishprogrammesofstudy
Mathematics
The importance of building step by step on mathematical understanding and skills development cannot be over emphasised. From the start children have a systematic programme of mathematics, using practical and applied resources to ensure that place value, the four number operations and the understanding of fractional parts are fully understood. There is a strong focus on the value of number (the oneness of one), in addition to hands on practical investigations into the number system and patterns within the number system.
Activities are designed to develop deeper thinking, reinforcing the initial building blocks for mathematical thinking, reasoning and problem solving. We aim to develop a wide mathematical vocabulary and range of mental models and images that are built upon to develop concrete strategies of calculations (see Calculation Policy).
From the start, children are taught in differentiated groups and sets, to allow further consolidation for some, and for greater speed and breadth of delivery at the upper end of attainment. The approach taken by the schools is used to meet the diverse pupil body at the school.
Mathematics Programmes of Study:
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/nationalcurriculuminenglandmathematicsprogrammesofstudy
Science
The curriculum is designed to develop a scientific approach to the subject matter from the earliest start, with an emphasis on enquiry, developing hypotheses, investigating variables and using mathematical and scientific vocabulary. Exploration and collection of data, through effective integration of appropriate ICT, is fundamental to instilling scientific approaches to learning. There is a strong emphasis on the practical to engage and enthuse.
The model of ‘Science Themes’ linked to the ‘Mantle’ that run for a term allow for specific science focuses: during these weeks there is a particular whole school scientific focus, culminating in exhibitions and presentations on the learning that has taken place.
Science Programmes of Study:
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/nationalcurriculuminenglandscienceprogrammesofstudy
Computing
We teach computing as a discrete subject and use IT to support learning across the school and across subject areas. Computer science is taught which includes writing algorithms and programming. All children at school have timetabled sessions.
The approach to the use of IT, is to develop usage in line with current educational best practice. In such a fast changing environment there are two essentials: to ensure that the teachers are confident with the use of I pads, IWBs and PCs for facilitating high educational learning experiences and outcomes, and for ensuring strong informed curriculum leadership to remain on top of how IT raises standards in the classroom. The requirement of the New National Curriculum to teach Computer Coding is delivered through the Computing coordinator and utilises expert practitioners such as, Lego Robotic hardware, which incorporates programmable features such as responses to sound, light and direction.
IT is integrated into all core lessons: the use of laptops and other hardware such as digital cameras and live action filming is as much part of the learning tools as would be pencils and pens.
Computing Programmes of Study:
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/nationalcurriculuminenglandcomputingprogrammesofstudy
Religious Education
We are two Church of England Schools (Lowick VC, Holy Island VA) and as such place an emphasis on the teaching of religious education. It permeates all aspects of the schools and underpins our distinctiveness. Our practice makes clear links about the Christian faith and world faiths to wider issues of history and settlement, and we link studies of the world faiths to relevant topics wherever appropriate. We also explore people’s right to not engage in an organised faith but still adopt a moral and ethical code of living that respects others right to a belief system.
The school follows the Diocesan of Newcastle syllabus for RE. While we recognise the right of parents to withdraw their child from RE lessons, it is anticipated that all children will take a full role in these lessons (see RE Policy).
Worship
We have adopted the Newcastle Diocesan scheme for worship. Parents and governors are welcome to attend Worship. While school recognises the right of parents to withdraw their child from acts of worship, it is anticipated that as we are church schools, parents would wish to support us and allow their child to play an active part in the life of the school.
Music
Music plays an important and central role to the school. Children are given opportunities throughout the year to perform in public. All children are taught singing as part of a choir or in solo/duet roles. We use the Northumberland music services to engage a peripatetic music specialist to teach Ukulele to the KS2 pupils. The school has built up a large library of musical instruments which are used to engage the pupils with untuned instruments. It is through the teaching of musical instruments that pupils are taught time signatures, notation, rhythm, beat and pulse.
The children have access to music from the Medieval period to the Modern, as well as from different cultures. This enables pupils to understand the instruments used, emotions provoked and stories that music can portray.
Evidence from The Journal of Neuroscience suggests that there are clear benefits to brain development in musical education even into older adulthood: more musical training leads to faster brain responses to sound and speech, and there are other benefits to musical provision delivered by subject specialists, including impact upon mathematical attainment and strengthening of memory.
Music Programmes of Study:
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/nationalcurriculuminenglandmusicprogrammesofstudy
Physical Education
There is a considerable commitment to offering a wide range of sport, dance and physical education at the School. Extensive use is made of our own specialist teacher and visiting coaches. The school has for many years employed its own specialist dance teacher (dance is taught to all pupils each week), and engaged sports coaches working to support the development of pupil and teachers’ skills. The school ensures that all of the pupils learn to swim, with weekly swimming lessons taking place at the local Leisure Centre (using the trained Leisure Centre coaches to teach swimming). In addition to swimming at the Leisure centre, we use the large sports hall. Children experience fencing, archery, curling, bocca, gymnastics, games, athletics, netball, football, hockey, rugby and cricket. Some of these sports are taught by specialist coaches from our Sports Partnership.
We also ensure wider participation in the community by involvement in interschool sports and tournaments. Effective use has been made of the PE and Sports Grant to widen still further involvement in “hard to reach” pupils.
Outdoor and Adventurous Activities form part of the delivered PE curriculum. This involves a three day residential visit to Whithaugh Park for the KS2 pupils, problemsolving or teambuilding activities in the school grounds as well as formal activities such as orienteering. .
PE Programmes of Study:
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/nationalcurriculuminenglandphysicaleducationprogrammesofstudy
Humanities: History and Geography
History and Geography are taught using the ‘Mantle of the Expert’, integrating the key areas of learning into powerful topics. We believe that the best learning takes place when meaningful and integrated links are made between history and geography and, where appropriate: global education and citizenship encompassing spiritual, cultural, social and moral education.
A key component of the ‘Mantle of the Expert’ approach is the ‘Big Themes’ and the ‘Big Questions’ that can be examined throughout the children’s education, using more complex subject matter and approaches to learning as the children progress. An example of a Mantle is ‘Time Detectives’ with a big question of “Why did farming and settlement change over time?” This is then examined from the Stone Age to the Vikings, with the geographical location of the Romans, Anglo  Saxons and Vikings, as well as land formation, land use and location factors for settlements.
Therefore the ‘Mantle’ may have a history, geography or RE ‘driver’. So a topic might focus more on geographical learning whilst being contextualised within a historical period. An example of this might be a main study of the geographical features of Greece, but would include aspects of the Ancient Greeks.
Humanities Programmes of Study:
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/nationalcurriculuminenglandhistoryprogrammesofstudy
Philosophy for Children
We adopt P4C teaching approaches led by Sapere (Society for Advancing Philosophical Enquiry and Reflection in Education and ensure that staff have attended training to allow them to use the excellent methodologies as part of their teaching practice especially in links to the Humanities.
P4C develops children’s thinking skills, their ability to form an argument or adopt a different viewpoint, it encourages expression of complex issues with an expectation that opinions need to be justified and supported, and emphasises critical reflection. The school considers it to be a vital facilitating teaching tool across the curriculum.
Art and Design Technology
We value the place of Art and Design Technology in the busy curriculum, both for their own unique subject benefits, but also as a way of understanding the world in which the children live both past and present. The visual arts provide a window into other times and cultures and allows children to explore their own emotions and identity. A wide range of skills and techniques are covered. Children have the opportunity to work with a variety of materials and cover areas such as; drawing, painting, photography, printing, ceramics, sewing, weaving and construction activities.
Design Technology allows children to work from an initial brief that involves solving a problem, requires them to exercise collaborative working practices and overcome difficulties, thus building resilience.
Like the approach to other curriculum subjects, we immerse ourselves in both the local and wider community of artistic provision. Active use is made of the local environment for sketching and as a stimulus for art. Visits to galleries in both Edinburgh and Newcastle are undertaken on planned basis.
Art and Design Technology Programmes of Study:
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/nationalcurriculuminenglandartanddesignprogrammesofstudy
Modern Foreign Languages: Spanish
We focus on Spanish, building on the knowledge and understanding of the children as they progress through the school.
We ensure that teaching is fun, and engaging with an emphasis on spoken language skills, music, movement and role play. The children are provided with a “language portfolio” which accompanies them through the school, charting their progress and development. We use a variety of rich resources, including online curriculum schemes.
MFL Syllabus Programmes of Study:
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/nationalcurriculuminenglandlanguagesprogammesofstudy
PHSE
We view Personal, Health and Social Education (PHSE) as an important aspect to a balanced curriculum. We believe that children need to learn how to manage relationships in order that they can become respectful and therefore productive. This will support the development of the curriculum in general and individuals in particular. We use the SEAL programme to help us deliver the social aspects of PHSE.
Sex Education
Although no formal sex education is given, in the study of the natural world, the children encounter growth and development. The governors maintain a Sex and Relationship policy which is available from the school on request.
Appendix 2
Use of Homework to support the school curriculum
Aims
 To provide homework that is relevant meaningful and purposeful – which is not “for the sake of it
 To foster a love of reading and wider learning
 To provide homework when necessary that consolidates or encourages practice of new skills
 To develop a sense of responsibility and ownership towards work completion
 To encourage the development of independent thought and the application of research tools
 To increase our home school partnership through shared understanding of work covered in school
 To prepare our eldest children for secondary school through the setting of more frequent and regular homework tasks.
Reading Homework
In every Year Group we expect children to “read” at home on a daily basis. The reading Challenge has been introduced to promote pupil and parental engagement.
We know that the key contributor to children’s progress and achievement both academically and personally, is reading. Reading introduces children to new ideas, and experiences, and develops their ability to understand themselves, as well as the world in which they live. In addition, reading exposes them to vocabulary, variety of sentence construction, alternative written styles and importantly the ‘look’ of words. A potential significant contributory factor to good spelling retention is frequent sustained reading.
We expect parents to complete a Reading Record at home. These provide an opportunity for children and the parents to engage actively with the reading book, and produce a written response. It might include comments on reading ability or deeper thinking such as imagine another scene or location that would link to the book, it might be a selection of new vocabulary from the book, a book review or a commentary on a writer’s style.
At the beginning of each academic year, every child is provided with a Reading Record. All books read as part of the Reading Record form a valuable record throughout the year of the range of books read. Teachers add to the Reading Record when they hear a child read during Tutor group. This helps to strengthen links between home and school.
Spelling Homework
Dependent upon the age and stage of the child, we teach common letter patterns, spelling rules and, as the children progress, focus increasingly on the derivation of words including common prefixes and suffixes. The school complies with the requirements of The New National Curriculum Spelling lists and also uses Support for Spelling Second edition 2009 Ref: 011092009PDFEN01 published by DCSF.
Parents and carers are kept informed regarding the spelling or word focus during the half term. We assess learning and application of these spelling patterns and rules through ongoing assessment and children’s written work. We will not have a weekly spelling “tests” of set spellings, but will assess spellings including spelling patterns on an ad hoc basis.
Handwriting
Children are expected to write in a fluent cursive style, which aids speed, and helps retain spelling patterns. We ask that children practice their handwriting as part of learning their spellings. We will from time to time ask children to practise handwriting activities at home to support class work. Written
Homework
Teachers will, when appropriate, set age appropriate written tasks for completion at home, related to text types covered in class e.g. persuasive writing, descriptive writing.
Research, Mini –Topics and Independent Projects
It is hugely important for “children to plan, research and critically evaluate” and “to take responsibility for their own learning” as part of their development as independent thinkers and learners.
In each Year Group there are homework tasks related to developing and fostering these skills –such as researching an area related to a topic covered in class, or producing a piece of independently produced work. Dependent on the Year Group, there will be particular direction regarding the structure of the homework project.
Mathematics Homework
At the earliest stages, we would encourage children and parents to practise number knowledge and apply learning to home such as shopping, cooking, telling the time, measurement, and other domestic situations.
We would expect every child to learn tables 212 progressively. We expect the majority of children to have complete recall of all the related number facts of 2 5 and 10 and 3 and 6 by end of Year 3. We would expect knowledge of 3, 4, 6, and 7, 8, 9 11 and 12 by end of Year 4. We will test tables on a “when ready” basis and children’s mastery of each set of tables during the weekly Mental Maths test.